# Class 9

## Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 6 Trigonometry Ex 6.1

9th standard trigonometry exercise 6.1 Question 1.
From the given figure find all the trigonometric ratios of angle B.
Solution:

9th maths trigonometry exercise 6.1 Question 2.
From the given figure, find the values of
(i) sin B
(ii) sec B
(iii) cot B
(iv) cos C
(v) tan C
(vi) cosec C
Solution:

trigonometry exercise 6.1 Question 3.
If 2 cos θ = $$\sqrt{3}$$, then find all the trigonometric ratios of angle θ.
Solution:

Trigonometry solutions exercise 6.1 Question 4.
If cos A = $$\frac{3}{5}$$, then find the value of $$\frac{\sin A-\cos A}{2 \tan A}$$
Solution:

trignometry solution of 9th class Question 5.
If cos A = $$\frac{2 x}{1+x^{2}}$$ then find the values of sin A and tan A in terms of x.
Solution:

Question 6.

Solution:

Question 7.
If 3 cot A = 2, then find the value of $$\frac{4 \sin A-3 \cos A}{2 \sin A+3 \cos A}$$
Solution:

Question 8.
If cos θ : sin θ = 1 : 2, then find the value of $$\frac{8 \cos \theta-2 \sin \theta}{4 \cos \theta+2 \sin \theta}$$
Solution:

Question 9.
From the given figure, prove that θ + ϕ = 90°. Also prove that there are two other right angled triangles. Find sin α, cos β and tan ϕ
Solution:

(∴ By Pythagoras theorem, in a right angled triangle square of hypotenuse is equal to sum of the squares of other two side)
And also in the figure, ∆ADC, ∆DBC are two other triangles.
As per the data given,
92+ 122 = 81 + 144 = 225 = 152
∴ ∆ ADC is a right angled triangle, then 122 + 162 = 144 + 256 = 400 = 202
∴ ∆ DBC is also a right angled triangle

Question 10.
A boy standing at point O finds his kite flying at a point P with distance OP = 25 m. It is at a height of 5 m from the ground. When the thread is extended by 10 m from P, it reaches a point Q. What will be the height QN of the kite from the ground? (use trigonometric ratios)
Solution:
In the figure,
∆OPM, ∆OQN are similar triangles. In similar triangles the sides are in the same proportional.

## Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry Ex 5.2

9th Maths Coordinate Geometry Exercise 5.2 Question 1.
Find the distance between the following pairs of points.
(i) (1, 2) and (4, 3)
(ii) (3, 4) and (- 7, 2)
(ii) (a, b) and (c, b)
(iv) (3, -9) and (-2, 3)
Solution:
We know that distance,

9th Samacheer Maths Solution Ex 5.2 Question 2.
Determine whether the given set of points in each case are collinear or not.
(i) (7, -2), (5, 1), (3, 4)
(ii) (a, -2), (a, 3), (a, 0)
Solution:
(i) Let the points be A (7, -2), B (5, 1) and C (3, 4). By the distance formula.

∴ Hence the points are collinear.

(ii) Let the points be A (a, -2), B (a, 3) and C (a, 0).

∴ Hence the points are collinear.

Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry Answers Question 3.
Show that the following points taken in order form an isosceles triangle.
(i) A (5, 4), B(2, 0), C (-2, 3)
(ii) A (6, -4),B (-2, -4), C (2, 10)
Solution:
(i) Let the points be A (5, 4), B (2, 0) and C (-2, 3)

Here AB + BC > CA and AB = BC. ∴ ∆ ABC is an isosceles triangle.

(ii) Let the points be A (6, -4), B (-2, -4) and C (2, 10).

Here BC + BA > CA and BC = CA. Two sides are equal, so ∆ ABC is an isosceles triangle

Coordinate Geometry Solutions Ex 5.2 Question 4.
Show that the following points taken in order form an equilateral triangle in each case.
(i) A(2, 2), B(-2, -2), C($$-2 \sqrt{3}$$, $$2 \sqrt{3}$$)
(ii) A($$\sqrt{3}$$ ,2), B (0, 1), C(0, 3)
Solution:
(i) Let the points be A (2, 2) B (-2, -2) and C($$-2 \sqrt{3}$$, $$2 \sqrt{3}$$)

All the 3 sides of ∆ABC are equal, Hence ∆ABC is an equilateral triangle.

(ii) Let the points be A ($$\sqrt{3}$$, 2), B (0, 1) and C (0, 3).
All the 3 sides of ∆ABC are equal. Hence ∆ABC is an equilateral triangle.

Question 5.
Show that the following points taken in order form the vertices of a parallelogram.
(i) A(-3, 1), B(-6, -7), C (3, -9) and D(6, -1)
(ii) A (-7, -3), B(5, 10), C(15, 8) and D(3, -5)
Solution:
(i) Let A, B, C and D represent the points (-3, 1), (-6, -7) (3, -9) and (6, -1) respectively.

The opposite sides are equal. Hence ABCD is a parallelogram.

(ii) Let A, B, C and D represent the points (-7, -3), (5, 10) (15, 8) and (3, -5)

The opposite sides are equal. Hence ABCD is a parallelogram.

Form 3 Maths Exercise Question 6.
Verify that the following points taken in order form the vertices of a rhombus.
(i) A(3, -2), B (7, 6),C (-1, 2) and D (-5, -6)
(ii) A (1, 1), B(2, 1),C (2, 2) and D(1, 2)
Solution:
(i) Let the points be A(3, -2), B (7, 6), C (-1, 2) and D (-5, -6)

∴ All the four sides of quadrilateral ABCD are equal. Hence ABCD is a rhombus.

Question 7.
If A(-1, 1), B(1, 3) and C(3, a) are points and if AB = BC, then find ‘a’
Solution:

Maths Solutions For Class 9 Samacheer Kalvi Ex 5.2 Question 8.
The abscissa of a point A is equal to its ordinate, and its distance from the point B(1, 3) is 10 units, what are the coordinates of A?
Solution:

Co-ordinates of A are (-5, -5) or (9, 9)

9th Maths Book Ex 5.2 Question 9.
The point (x, y) is equidistant from the points (3, 4) and (-5, 6). Find a relation between x and y.
Solution:
P(x, y) is equidistant from the points A(3, 4) and B(-5, 6)

Geometry 5.2  9th Maths Ex 5.2 Question 10.
Let A(2, 3) and B(2, -4) be two points. If P lies on the x-axis, such that AP = $$\frac{3}{7}$$AB, find the coordinates of P.
Solution:

9th Maths Guide Ex 5.2 Question 11.
Show that the point (11, 2) is the centre of the circle passing through the points (1, 2), (3, -4) and (5, -6)
Solution:

Therefore S is the centre of the circle, passing through A, B and C.

5 Coordinate Geometry Ex 5.2 Question 12.
The radius of a circle with centre at origin is 30 units. Write the coordinates of the points where the circle intersects the axes. Find the distance between any two such points.
Solution:

## Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Prose Chapter 6 From Zero to Infinity

You can Download From Zero to Infinity Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Book Solutions Guide Pdf Prose Chapter 6 help you to revise complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

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## Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Prose Chapter 6 From Zero to Infinity

From Zero To Infinity 9th Standard English Warm Up:

Question 1.
Did you enjoy solving this?
Yes.

Question 2.
Was it easy or hard to solve?
It was very easy to solve.

Question 3.
Do you like Mathematics? Give reasons.
I like mathematics because it is fun to solve and find the right solutions. It is very useful in our daily lives.
OR
I do not like mathematics because it is complicated and too hard to understand.

### From Zero to Infinity Intext Questions

Question 1.
What was the reaction of the classmates to Ramanujan’s question?
There was a roar of laughter in the class when Ramanujan asked a question. The boys exclaimed that it was a silly question to ask.

Question 2.
What did the Indian mathematician Bhaskara prove?
The Indian mathematician Bhaskara proved that zero divided by zero is infinity.

Question 3.
Where did Ramanujan get S.L. Loney’s book on Trigonometry?
Ramanujan got the book “Loney’s Trignometry” from a college library.

Question 4.
Where did Ramanujan do his mathematical problems?
Ramanujan did his mathematical problems on loose sheets of paper or on a slate.

Question 5.
What were the subjects neglected by Ramanujan in college?
The subjects neglected by Ramanujan in college were History, English, and Physiology.

Question 6.
Which University granted him a fellowship of H75 a month?
University of Madras granted him a fellowship of? 75 a month.

Question 7.
What did Ramanujan send to G.H. Hardy?
Ramanujan sent a letter to G.H. Hardy in which he set out 120 theorems and formulae.

Question 8.
Who discovered a rare mathematical genius in Ramanujan?
G.H Hardy and his colleague J.E. Littlewood discovered a rare mathematical genius in Ramanujan.

### From Zero to Infinity Textual Questions

A. Answer the following questions in a sentence or two.

Question 1.
Why did the students laugh at Ramanujan?

Question 2.
Why did the teacher compliment Ramanujan?
The teacher complimented Ramanuj for asking a question that took centuries for mathematicians to answer.

Question 3.
Question What did Ramanujan do after reading the book on Trigonometry?
Ramanujan mastered the book and also began his own research.

Question 4.
What disappointed Ramanujan’s father?
Ramanujan failed twice in his first-year arts examination in college as he neglected other subjects such as History, English and Physiology. This disappointed his father.

Question 5.
How did Ramanujan manage his paper crisis?
Ramanujan started using even scraps of paper he found lying on the streets. Thus he managed his paper crisis.

Question 6.
Why was Ramanujan’s application for jobs rejected?
Ramanujan would show his frayed notebooks to every officer. But no one could understand what was written in the notebooks. So, his applications for jobs were rejected.

Question 7.
Why was Ramanujan sent back to India?
Ramanujan was being devoured by Tuberculosis, then an incurable disease. So he was sent back to India.

Question 1.
Who asked the intriguing question to the arithmetic teacher? What do you know about him?
The intriguing question was asked by Srinivasa Ramanujan. He was a native of Kumbakonam. Both during his school and research work at Cambridge, he was always ahead of his mathematics teachers.

Question 2.
Where and when was Ramanujan born? What do you know of his father?
Ramanujan was born in Erode in Tamil Nadu on December 22, 1887. His father was a petty clerk in a cloth shop.

Question 3.
What was the most significant turn in Ramanujan’s life?
The most significant turn came when one of Ramanujan’s senior friends showed him Synopsis of Elementary> Results in Pure Applied Mathematics by George Shoobridge Carr. Ramanujan was delighted than intimidated. This book triggered the mathematical genius in him and he began to work on the problems given in it.

Question 4.
What was Hardy’s opinion of Ramanujan?
According to Hardy, Ramanujan was an unsystematic mathematician, similar to one who knows the Pythagorus theorem but does not know what a congruent triangle means. He felt that many discrepancies in his research could be due to his lack of formal education.

Question 5.
How can you say that Ramanujan was multi-talented?
Besides Ramanujan being a mathematician, he was a reputed astrologer. He was also an excellent orator and many were eager to listen to his practical and intellectual talks. He used to give lectures on subjects like “God, Zero and Infinity”, topics that no ordinary man can easily indulge in. Hence we can surely say he was multi-talented.

Question 1.
Describe the life of Srinivasa Ramanujan in India.
Ramanujan was born in Erode in Tamilnadu on December 22,1887. From early childhood, it was evident that he was a prodigy. Senior students used to get his assistance in solving math problems. At the age of 13, he began his own research on Trigonometry. The book “Elementary Results in Pure Applied Mathematics” by George Shoobridge Carr triggered the genius in Ramanujan. He used to do problems on loose sheets and enter the results in notebooks which are now famous as “Ramanujan’s Frayed Notebooks”.

Although Ramanujan secured a first class in Mathematics in the matriculation examination and was awarded the Subramanyan Scholarship, he failed twice in his first year arts examination in college as he neglected other subjects such as History, English and Physiology. He searched for job for food and papers to do calculations. The Director of Madras Port Trust gave a clerical job to Ramanujan on a monthly salary of Rupees 25.

Question 2.
Narrate the association of Ramanujan with G.H. Hardy.
Ramanujan sent a letter to the great Mathematician G.H. Hardy of Cambridge University, in which he set out 120 theorems and formulae which included the Reimann Series. Hardy and his colleague Littlewood realized that they had discovered a rare mathematical genius.

They invited him to Britain.Despite the cold weather and food, Ramanujan continued his research with determination in the company of Hardy and Littlewood. Hardy found an unsystematic mathematician in Ramanujan due to his lack of formal education. Ramanujan’s achievements include the Hardy-Ramanujan-Littlewood circle method in number theory.

Question 1.
What prompted Ramanujan to ask an intriguing question?
The Mathematics teacher was teaching and solving concepts in division. She drew three bananas on the blackboard and she pointed to three boys who were there and asked them how many each would get. A smart student quickly answered that each would get one. After appreciating the students’ answer, the teacher introduced a similar instance of 1,000 bananas distributed among 1,000 boys where each would again get one. While the teacher was explaining, a boy seated in one comer who was none other than Ramanujan asked an intriguing question wherein if no banana was distributed among no one, would everyone still get one banana?

Question 2.
Mention the achievements of Srinivasa Ramanujan.
Ramanujan was elected Fellow of the Royal Society on February 28, 1918. In October, 1918 he became the first Indian to be elected Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. His achievements at Cambridge include the Hardy-Ramanujan-Littlewood circle method in number theory.

He is also popular with Roger-Ramanujan’s identities in partition of integers. A long list of the highest composite numbers, besides work on the number theory and the algebra of inequalities are also his noted achievements. In algebra his work on continued fractions is considered on par with great mathematicians like Leonard Euler and Jacobi.

Question 3.
What did Ramanujan do when his mind was flooded with ideas?
Mathematical ideas flooded Ramanujan’s mind. He was not able to write all of them down. ‘He solved problems on loose sheets of paper, slate and jotted the results down in notebooks. Before he went abroad he had filled three notebooks, later known as Ramanujan’s Frayed Notebooks.

His father who found him scribbling, mistook him to be mad. He had to find money for food and papers to do calculations. Every month, he needed at least 2,000 sheets of paper. He started using scraps of paper found lying on the streets. Sometimes, he even wrote using red ink over used papers found on the streets.

C. Match the words with correct Synonym and Antonym from the table.

Listening:

D. Listen to the anecdote “Two Geniuses” and narrate it in your own words.

Narration of “Two Geniuses”

There’s a story about how Dr. Albert Einstein was travelling to Universities in his car, delivering lectures on his theory of relativity. During one tired journey, his driver Hans remarked “Dr. Einstein, I have heard you deliver that lecture about 30 times. ,t I know it by heart and bet I could give it myself.”

“Well, I’ll give you the chance”, said the Dr. “They don’t know me at the next University, so when we get there, I’ll put on your cap, and you introduce yourself as Dr. Einstein and give the lecture.”

The driver delivered Einstein’s lecture without any mistakes. When he finished, he started to leave, but one of the professor stopped him and asked a complex question filled with mathematical equations and formulae. The driver thought fast. “The answer to that problem is so simple,” he said,” I’m surprised you have to ask me. In fact, to show you just how simple it is, I’m going to ask my driver Hans to come up here and answer your question”.

Speaking:

E. Divide the students into groups of five and conduct a group discussion on the topic “Importance of Mathematics in Our Everyday Life” The teacher will act as a moderator.

Group Discussion on Importance of Mathematics

Teacher: Good morning students! We have just learnt the life of the great mathematician Ramanujan. Now let’s have a group discussion on “Importance of Mathematics in Our Everyday Life”. Divide yourselves into groups of five.

Harsha (Group A) : The importance of maths in everyday life. Mathematics is a methodical application of matter. It is so said because the subject makes a man methodical or systematic. Mathematics makes our life orderly and prevents chaos.

Varsha (Group B) : In Hebrew, it’s root is “thinking.” They tell us that mathematics gives us the critical ability to learn and think logically in any field of endeavor. The skills of learning today are more important than knowledge, which is so readily available on the Internet.

Yusuf (Group C) : Math is an important part of our lives, because in the future you will get a job that deals with math. Math is pretty much in everything you do, really. Math is important because it is the most widely used subject in the world. Every career uses some sort of math.

Adhira (Group D) : Maths improves problem-solving abilities. Teaches clearer logical reasoning. Sharpens concentration and observance. Develops confidence and self-esteem.

Danny (Group E) : Knowing basic math principles keeps you from having to carry around a calculator because good use of math allows you to do many calculations in your head.

F. Answer the following questions based on the given passage.

Question 1.
What made John Shepherd-Barron to come up with the idea of ATM?
It was then John’s habit to withdraw money on a Saturday, but on this particular weekend he had arrived one minute late and found the bank doors locked against him. This made him to come up with idea of ATM.

Question 2.
When and where was the first ATM installed?
The first ATM was installed at a branch in the North London suburb of Enfield on June 27, 1967.

Question 3.
Who was the first person to withdraw cash from the ATM?
The first person to withdraw cash from the ATM was Reg Varney, a celebrity resident of Enfield known for his part in the number of popular television series.

Question 4.
Why did Shepherd-Barron reduce the PIN number from six digits to four?
Shepherd-Barron’s wife said that she could only remember four figures, because of her, four figures became the world standard.

Question 5.
Which theory of Ramanujan helps the ATMs to dispense cash?
Ramanujan’s Partition theory helps the ATMs to dispense cash.

Writing:

G. Paragraph Writing

Question 1.
Write a paragraph of 100-120 words about a memorable anecdote / incident of your life.
A memorable anecdote/incident in my life:
I was then a student of class four. One day, I was left at home with my grandmother. It was in the afternoon, my grandmother was taking a nap. I was a very restless one. The toys soon bored me and I looked around for something new. The unique thing which caught my attention was my Grandma’s spectacles.

I put it on my nose just in the style of my Grandma and looked around. Soon my eyes got tired. As I felt pain in my eyes, I removed the specs and threw them away. They struck the wall and landed on the ground broken. Now I got worried and afraid. I started trying to repair it. As I was holding these glass pieces I felt a severe pain in the middle finger of my right hand, I looked at it .

Blood was trickling down from a deep cut in my finger. I started crying loudly. On hearing my loud wailing my Grandma woke up. She hurriedly came out of her room, took a quick glance at my adventure and detecting the source of my trouble, she pressed her hand on my cut finger for some time and then she took me to the doctor for bandaging. I was very much afraid of punishment but my Grandma forgave me although she had to suffer difficulty in seeing until the glasses were repaired. However I was naturally punished as I could neither eat my meals nor do my homework for three days.

Question 2.
My favorite personality:
There are many people all around the world who are very famous and celebrities. But my favourite personality is my father. My father is my hero. He is kind, polite and really friendly to everyone. He is a teacher by profession and is very good in teaching. He is always ready to help and support the needy and helpless. He is a God fearing person and always teaches us to remember the God’s gifts and God’s love for the world.

I am so proud to have a father like him. He is a simple man with kind rules. He is handsome, my favourite and my ideal man. He is my friend and always ready to encourage, appreciate me for success and always ready to help me wherever I need a friend or a support of my father. I am proud of my father and wish him good health forever.

Grammar:

A. Complete the following sentences using appropriate Connectors from the box.

1. She felt cold _________ she was wearing a winter coat.
although

2. This restaurant has some of the best chefs in the town.__________ their service is excellent.
Moreover

3. I’m not going to the party tonight __________ I didn’t get an invitation.
because

4. You can set the table. __________, I’ll start making dinner.
Meanwhile

5. I can play quite a few instruments __________ , the flute, the guitar and the piano.
For instance

6. The store was out of chocolate chips; __________ they would need to make a different type of cookies.
therefore

7. The stores are open daily __________ Sundays.
except

8. I’ll stay __________ you need me.
as long as

9. This detergent is highly concentrated and __________ you will need to dilute it.
thus

10. It was the thing he prized __________ .
above all

Active Voice and Passive Voice:

B. Convert the following active sentences into passive sentences by supplying an appropriate passive verb form.

Question 1.
She will not recognize us. / We__________ by her.
(a) will not recognize
(b) will not being recognized
(c) will not be recognized
(c) will not be recognized

Question 2.
They didn’t invite me, but I went anyway. /I __________ but I went anyway.
(a) wasn’t invited
(b) wasn’t being invited
(c) wasn’t inviting
(a) wasn’t invited

Question 3.
They broke up the table for firewood. / The table __________ up for firewood.
(a) broke
(c) was broken
(c) was broken

Question 4.
She has won the first prize. / The first prize __________ by her.
(a) has won
(b) has been won
(b) has been won

Question 5.
A friend of mine is repairing the car. / The car __________ by a friend of mine.
(a) is repairing
(b) is repaired
(c) is being repaired
(c) is being repaired

Question 6.
Begin the work tomorrow. / Let the work __________ tomorrow.
(a) be begun
(b) begin
(c) is beginning
(a) be begun

Question 7.
They speak English in New Zealand. / English __________ in New Zealand.
(a) is speaking
(b) is spoken
(c) is being spoken
(b) is spoken

Question 8.
His attitude shocked me. / I __________ by his attitude.
(c) was shocked
(c) was shocked

Question 9.
She had already sent the parcel. / The parcel __________ by her.

Question 10.
Her silence worries me / I __________ her silence.
(a) am worrying by
(b) am worried by
(c) have worried by
(b) am worried by

C. Match the following Active voice sentences with Passive voice.

D. Change the following into passive voice.

Question 1.
Stanley will inform you later.
You will be informed by Stanley later.

Question 2.
People speak Portuguese in Brazil.
Portuguese is spoken by people in Brazil.

Question 3.
My grandfather built this house in 1943.
This house was built by my grandfather in 1943.

Question 4.
Do not hurt the animals.
You are warned not to hurt the animals.

Question 5.
You must not drop litter in the streets.
You are warned not to drop litter in the streets.

Question 6.
Carry it home.
Let it be carried to home.

Question 7.
They are decorating the wall.
The wall is being decorated by them.

Question 8.
He has already mended the TV set.
The TV set has already been mended by him.

E. Make a scrapbook of’Famous Biographies’ by collecting at least five biographies of famous scientists, mathematicians, inventors, artists etc., of your choice. You may also collect the pictures related to their achievements, inventions etc.
Sir Isaac Newton (Scientist):
Sir Isaac Newton was born on Christmas day, 1642. He was an English physicist and mathematician, who was the culminating figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. Born in the hamlet of Woolsthorpe, Newton was the only son of a local yeoman. Newton would eventually pick up his idea of a mathematical science of motion and bring his work to full fruition.

A tiny and weak baby, Newton was not expected to survive his first day of life, much less 84 years. Deprived of a father before birth, he soon lost his mother as well, for within two years she married a second time. He was left with his grandmother and moved to a neighbouring village.

For nine years, Isaac was effectively separated from his mother, and his pronounced psychotic tendencies have been ascribed to this traumatic event. Like thousands of other undergraduates, Newton began his higher education by immersing himself in Aristotle’s work. Even though the new philosophy was not in the curriculum, it was in the air.

Sometime during his undergraduate career, Newton discovered the works of the French natural philosopher Rene Descartes and the other mechanical philosophers. Newton had also begun his mathematical studies. Within little more than a year, he had mastered the literature; and, pursuing his own line of analysis, he began to move into new territory.

Despite the. fact that only a handful of savants were even aware of Newton’s existence, he had arrived at the point where he had become the leading mathematician in Europe.

Leonardo da Vinci (Artist):
Leonardo da Vinci was a leading artist and intellectual of the Italian Renaissance who’s known for his enduring works ‘ The Last Supper’ and the ‘Mona Lisa’. Leonardo da Vinci was born on April 15, 1452, in a farmhouse nestled amid the undulating hills of Tuscany outside the village of Anchiano, in present-day Italy. Born out of wedlock to respected Florentine notary Serpiero and a young peasant woman named Caterina.

Leonardo da Vinci was raised by his father and his stepmother. At the age of five, he moved to his father’s family estate in nearby Vinci, the Tuscan town from which the surname associated with Leonardo derives, and lived with his uncle and grandparents. Young Leonardo received little formal education beyond basic reading, writing and mathematics instruction, but his artistic talents were evident from an early age.

Around the age of 14, da Vinci began a lengthy apprenticeship with the noted artist Andrea del Verrocchio in Florence. He learned a wide breadth of technical skills including metalworking, leather arts, carpentry, drawing, painting and sculpting. His earliest known dated work, a pen-and-ink drawing of a landscape – the Amo Valley – was sketched in 1473. With a curious mind and keen intellect, da Vinci studied the laws of science and nature, which greatly improved his work. His ideas and body of work have influenced countless artists and made da Vinci a leading light of the Italian Renaissance.

Pythagoras (Mathematician):
Pythagoras is often known as the first pure mathematician. born on the island of Samos, Greece in 569 BC, his father, Mnesarchus, was a gem merchant. His mother’s name was Pythais and Pythagoras lived with his two or three brothers. Pythagoras was well educated, and played the lyre. He knew poetry and recited Homer. He was interested in mathematics, philosophy, astronomy and music.
Pythagoras believed:

1. The sum of the angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles.
2. The theorem of Pythagoras – for a right-angled triangle the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.
3. Constructing figures of a given area and geometrical algebra. For example they solved various equations by geometrical means.
4. Pythagoras taught that Earth was a sphere in the center of the Universe, that the planets, stars, and the universe were spherical because the sphere was the most perfect solid figure.
5. Pythagoras recognized that the morning star was the same as the evening star, Venus.

The Pythagorean Theorem is a cornerstone of mathematics, and continues to be so interesting to mathematicians that there are more than 400 different proofs of the theorem, including an original proof by President Garfield.

Michael Joseph Jackson (Singer and Dancer):

Michael Joseph Jackson was an American singer, songwriter and dancer. Dubbed the “King of Pop”, he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century and is also regarded as one of the greatest entertainers of all time. Jackson’s contributions to music, dance, and fashion, along with his publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades.

The eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito, Jermaine and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his solo career in 1971 while at Motown Records.

In the early 1980s, Jackson became a dominant figure in popular music. His music videos, including “Beat It”, “Billie Jean”, and “Thriller” from his 1982 album Thriller, are all time favourites. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized a number of complicated dance techniques, such as the robot and the moonwalk, to which he gave the name.

His distinctive sound and style has influenced numerous artists of various genres. While preparing for his comeback concert series, This Is It, Jackson died of acute propofol and benzodiazepine intoxication in 2009, after suffering from cardiac arrest.

Kapil Dev (Cricketer):

Dev was born as Kapil Dev Nikhanj to Ram Lai Nikhanj, a prominent timber merchant and his wife Raj Kumari Ram Lai Nikhanj in Chandigarh on 6 January 1959. His mother was born in Pakpattan, in the town of the Sufi Saint Baba Farid. His father was from Dipalpur. They lived in Shah Yakka which is now in Okara district, Pakistan. His four sisters were born there before partition and his two brothers in Fazilka, where they moved after partition. His father spent his early life after the partition in Fazilka. They moved to the capital city Chandigarh.

Dev was a student at D.A.V. School and joined Desh Prem Azad in 1971. Dev captained the Indian cricket team that won the 1983 Cricket World Cup. He was India’s national cricket coach between October 1999 and August 2000. He retired in 1994, holding the world record for the most number of wickets taken in Test cricket, a record subsequently broken by Courtney Walsh in 2000.

He is the first player to take 200 ODI wickets. He is the only player in the history of cricket to have taken more than 400 wickets (434 wickets) and scored more than 5000 runs in Tests, making him one of the greatest all-rounders to have played the game. On 11 March 2010, Dev was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame.

### From Zero to Infinity Lesson Summary By Biography Of Srinivasa Ramanujan

Ramanujan was born in Erode in Tamil Nadu on December 22, 1887. His father was a petty clerk in a cloth shop. From early childhood it was evident that he was a prodigy. Mathematical ideas flooded in his mind for which he did not find enough papers to note it down. Hence he started writing them in loose sheets which was later known as Ramanujan’s Frayed Notebook. At the age of 13, he was not only able to master the Loney’s Trigonometiy, but also started his own research and came up with many mathematical theorems and formulae.

At the age of 15, the book Synopsis of Elementary Results in Pure Applied Mathematics by George Shoobridge Carr given by his senior friends triggered the mathematical genius in him. Though Ramanujan was a mathematical genius and was awarded the Subramanyan Scholarship, he failed twice in his first-year arts examination in college, which disappointed his father.

Then Ramanujan started looking for a job as he needed money not only for food but also for papers to do his calculations. His applications were rejected as no one could understand what he had scribbled in his notebooks. Luckily, Director of Madras Port Trust, Francis Spring, understood his capability and he gave Ramanujan a clerical job on a monthly salary of ?25. Later on, some teachers and educationists helped him to get a research fellowship. Thus, on 1st May 1913, the University of Madras granted him a fellowship of ?75 a month, though he had no qualifying degree.

Meanwhile, he had sent a letter to the great mathematician G.H. Hardy of Cambridge University, in which he set out 120 theorems and formulae. Among them was what is known as the Reimann Series, a topic in the definite integral of Calculus. These letters made G.H. Hardy and his colleague J.E. Littlewood realize that they bad discovered a rare mathematical genius. They made quick arrangements for his passage and stay at Cambridge University. Ramanujan sailed to Britain on March 17, 1914.

Even though he found it difficult to adapt to the new environment, he continued his research in Mathematics with determination. He forgot his hardships in the company of Hardy and Littlewood. Ramanujan was elected Fellow of the Royal Society on February 28, 1918. He was the youngest Indian to receive this distinguished fellowship. In October that year, he became the first Indian to be elected Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

Ramanujan continued his works even though Tuberculosis, then an incurable disease, was devouring him. When his friends found him pale, exhausted and emaciated, they sent him back to India. He continued to play with numbers until his death. Apart from a mathematician, Ramanujan was an astrologer of repute and a good speaker.

From Zero to Infinity Glossary:

## Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Poem Chapter 5 The River

You can Download The River Poem Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Book Solutions Guide Pdf Poem Chapter 5 help you to revise complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Exploring the textbook concepts is not enough for students who dreamt to do a cakewalk in English grammar. Consistently do your learning and practicing session with Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Grammar study material and achieve all your dreams.

## Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Poem Chapter 5 The River

The River Poem Questions and Answers

The River Warm Up:

Question 1.
Have you ever been to a river?
Yes, I have been to a river.

Question 2.
Describe the beauty of the river you have seen?
The river I have seen is shallow and the water is clear. It is a natural stream of water meandering. It looks beautiful.

Question 3.
Do you think rivers have life like human beings?
Yes, I think rivers have life like human beings.

### The River 9th Class Poem Questions and Answers

B. Read the following lines and answer the River Poem 9th Standard questions given below.

1. O’re the yellow pebbles dancing,
Through the flowers and foliage glancing.

Question (а).
How does the river flow?
The river flows glancing through the flowers and foliage.

Question (b).
What is meant by ‘foliage’?
Foliage is a cluster of leaves, flowers and branches.

Question (a).
What is a pebble?
A Pebble is usually a small rounded stone found in water bodies like river.

Question (b).
What is the poetic device employed in the first line.
Imagery is the poetic device employed in the first line.

Question (c).
What is the poetic device employed in the second line.
Alliteration is the poetic device employed in the second line.

Question (d).
Give the rhyming word for ‘dancing’.
The rhyming word for ‘dancing’ is glancing.

Question (e).
Is the river like a child? Why?
Yes the river is like a child. The river like a child is bright and sparkling on its way. It dances and plays behind flowers and leaves of trees like a child playing hide and seek.

2. River, river! Swelling river!
On you rush through rough and smooth;

Question (a).
Why does the poet mention the river to be swelling?
There is a lot of water flowing heavily in the river. So the poet mentions the river to be swelling.

Question (b).
What are the surfaces the river flows through?
The surfaces the river flows through are the rough rocks and smooth places like rose banks where the roses grow.

Question (a).
What does the word ‘swelling’ indicate?
The word ‘swelling’ indicates the ebb and flow of the river.

Question (b).
Which word is the antonym for ‘rough’?
The antonym for the word rough is smooth.

3. Over rocks, by rose-banks, sweeping Like impetuous youth.

Question (a).
Where does the rose grow?
The rose grows on the rose banks.

Question (b).
Which stage of man is compared here?
The period of youth is compared here.

Question (a).
Where does it spend its y lounger days?
It spends younger days through rocks and woods.

Question (b).
What is sweeping?
The river is sweeping.

Question (c).
Identify the figure of speech.
Simile is the figure of speech.

Question (d).
What is meant by ‘impetuous’?
‘Impetuous’ means reckless or hasty.

Question (e).
Why is the river compared to an ‘impetuous youth’?
The river is compared to an impetuous youth because of its reckless and hasty movements over rocks and rose-banks.

4. Broad and deep, and still as time;
Seeming still, yet still in motion,

Question (a).
The river is broad and deep.

Question (b).
Is time still?
No, the time is not still, yet it seems to be still.

(a) Which words describe the river?
Broad, deep and still describe the river.

Question (b).
What is the figure of speech in the second line?
The figure of speech is alliteration.

Question (c).
Explain ‘still in motion’.
Though the river seems to be quiet and motionless, it is always in motion.

5. Tending onward to the ocean,
Just like a mortal prime.

(a) Where is the river flowing to?
The river is flowing to the ocean.

Question (b).
What does the poet mean by ‘ mortal Prime’?
By the term ‘Mortal prime’, the poet means the man is in the best age of his life.

Question (a).
Explain ‘Tending’.
‘Tending’ here means inclining towards a habitual action.

Question (b).
What is the figure of speech employed here?
The figure of speech is a simile.

The River Poem 9th Class  Additional Questions

1. River, river, little river!
Bright you sparkle on your way;

Question (i).
What is the river?
A river is a small little stream.

Question (ii).
Where is the river born?
The river is born in the mountains.

Question (iii).
Why is it called ‘little river’?
It is called a Tittle river’ because of its size.

Question (iv).
Give the example for epithet in the above lines.
Tittle river’ is the example for epithet in the above lines.

2. Louder, faster, brawling, leaping,

Question (i).
What is meant by ‘brawling’?
‘Brawling’ is a noisy quarrel.

Question (ii).
What is louder and faster?
The river’s movement is louder and faster.

Down you dash into the sea,

Question (i).
Why is the river said to be ‘headlong’?
The river is said to be ‘headlong’ because of its reckless movement.

Question (ii).
Pick out the alliterated words.
The alliterated words are ‘down’ and ‘dash’.

Question (iii).
Where does the headlong river rush to?
The headlong river rush towards the sea.

4. Sea that line hath never sounded,
Sea that sail hath never rounded,
Like eternity.

Question (i).
What is the figure of speech in the above lines?
Anaphora is the figure of speech in the above lines.

Question (ii).
Pick out the rhyming words.
The rhyming words are sounded and rounded

Question (iii).
What is the figure of speech in the second line?
The figure of speech is alliteration.

Question (iv).
Explain ‘hath never rounded’.
No ship has completely gone around the sea to be compared to eternity.

Question (v).
What is meant by ‘hath’?
‘hath’ is the old English word for ‘has’.

Question (vi).
What do the river and the sea remind the poet of?
The river is like transient human life. The sea reminds the poet of eternity.

Question (vii).
How does the sea remind you of eternity?
Sea is endless and hence it cannot be measured. We do not know where it begins from and where it would end. Hence it reminds me of eternity.

Question (viii).
What happens to the river when it approaches the ocean?
It seems wider and seems even slower when it approaches the ocean.

Question (iv).
When does a river grow and vanish?
As it approaches to the ocean the river grows and then vanishes into the ocean.

1. Bright you sparkle on your way;
O’er the yellow pebbles dancing,
Through the flowers and foliage glancing,
Like a child at play.
Pick out the rhyming words.
The rhyming words are: Way, play; dancing, glancing.

2. Mention the rhyme scheme of the poem.
The rhyme scheme of the poem is a b c c b.
River, river, little river! a
Bright you sparkle on your way; b
O’er the yellow pebbles dancing, c
Through the flowers and foliage glancing, c
Like a child at play. b

River, river! swelling river! a
On you rush through rough and smooth; b
Louder, faster, brawling, leaping, c
Over rocks, by rose-banks, sweeping c
Like impetuous youth. b

River, river! Brimming river! a
Broad and deep, and still as time; b
Seeming still, yet still in motion, c
Tending onward to the ocean, c
Just like mortal prime. b

Down you dash into the sea, b
Sea that line hath never sounded, c
Sea that sail hath never rounded, c
Like eternity. b

3. Through the flowers and foliage glancing,
Like a child at play.
Mention the figure of speech used in the above lines. Give various other examples from the poem.
Alliteration is the figure of speech used in the above line.
Various other examples from the poem are:-

1. On you rush through rough and smooth
2. Over rocks, by rose-banks
3. Seeming still, yet still in motion
4. Tending onward to the ocean
5. Down you dash into the sea
6. Sea that line hath never sounded
7. Sea that sail hath never rounded

4. Seeming still, yet still in motion
(a) Pick out the words in alliteration from the above line.
Seeming still

(b) Identify other examples from the poem for alliteraion.
Other examples from the poem are:-

1. On you rush through rough and smooth
2. Over rocks, by rose-banks
3. Seeming still, yet still in motion
4. Tending onward to the ocean
5. Down you dash into the sea
6. Sea that line hath never sounded
7. Sea that sail hath never rounded

5. Pick out the examples for epithet from the poem.

Little river!
Swelling river!
Brimming river!

6. Pick out the examples for imagery from the poem.

Yellow pebbles
dancing Brawling, leaping
dash into the sea

1. How does the poet bring about the comparison of life with the river? Explain it with reference to the poem.
Title: The River
Poet: Caroline Ann Bowles (1786 -1854)
Theme: The journey of life to eternity.

In the poem “The River”, the poet Caroline Ann Bowles compares river with various stages in a person’s life. The river sparkles brightly. It dances over the yellow pebbles. It glances through the flowers and foliage. The river swells and rushes through rough and smooth places.’ It also brawls and leaps. It goes by rough rocks and rose – banks. The river is like a reckless youth. The river is full, wide, and deep. It is motionless like time.

Though it seems to be still, moves towards the ocean. It is like a man in his prime. The river moves down quickly into .1 *. -ea. The sea is very deep down quickly into the sea. The sea is very deep and its depth lias never been measured by a line. None has gone by ship completely around the sea which is like an eternity.
“It the earth is the mother, the rivers are her veins”

2. Describe how the poem clearly describes the features, functions, and destructive power of the river.
The River is little. It is sprightly and it sparkles on its way. It dances over the yellow pebbles and plays hide and seek through the flowers and foliage. This poem describes the beauty of a river, in all its glory.

The river swells and rushes through rough and smooth paths. It moves with speed and fights and jumps over rocks and rose banks as they sweep across like the reckless youth. When the river brims, it appears broad and deep yet still as time. It seems to be still but it is always in motion. The final stage is the headlong river that dashes into the sea. Thus, the flow of the river shows the journey of life to eternity.

The different stages of life are brought in through the various imageries used in the poem. As the human life passes through childhood, youth, old age and eternity, likewise the river also undergoes changes in its own way. At first it is gentle, sparkling and dancing, moves faster, fights and leaps showing the destructive power of the river. However it gets subdued, becomes still and merges with the sea.

E. Based on your understanding of the poem, complete the summary of the poem by choosing the words/phrases given below.
prime phase, the yellow pebbles, motionless, stages of human life, sweeping, child, journey, reckless youth.

In the poem ‘The River’, the poet compares the flow of the river with different (1) ……………………… The first stanza explains how the sparkling river goes dancing over (2) …………………… and glancing through the flowers and leaves. These acts of the river is compared to a curious and innocent (3) …………………. at play. The second stanza compares the river to a (4) ……………………. who goes through rough and smooth patches of life. Like a youth, here the river becomes louder, faster, and (5) ……………………. everything all along the way. In the third stanza, the river becomes like a hard-working man who is at the (6) …………………… of life. Here the deep and broad river seems (7) ………………… but it keeps moving towards the sea like a matured man who silently marches towards the goal. In the last stanza, the long (8) ……………………. of the river reaches the endless sea like a human life attains eternity.

1. stages of human life
2. the yellow pebbles
3. child
4. reckless youth
5. sweeping
6. prime phase
7. motionless
8. journey

The River by About Caroline Ann Bowles The Poet:

Caroline Ann Bowles (1786-1854), the British poet and writer were married to Robert Southey who was the poet laureate of Britain. She wrote various other works including Chapter On Churchyard and Tales Of The Factories. The River is a poem that describes a river in all its vitality and splendour.

### The Little River Poem Summary By Caroline Ann Bowles

Oh! Little River – you sparkle brightly as you move along your way. As you move on, you go dancing over the yellow pebbles. You glance through the flowers and leaves of trees, dancing throughout like a child who is at play.
Oh! the river that ebbs and flows – you rush through rough and smooth pathways. You are louder, faster, clashing, and hurdling. You go past rough rocks and banks where roses grow. This movement of yours is very similar to a hasty youth.
Oh! River, which is overflowing – you are broad and deep and silent as time. Though you seem motionless, you are inclining towards the ocean just like a man in the best age of his lifespan.
Oh! River, you are so reckless and you rush down into the sea. That sea’s depth has never been measured by a weighted line. None has gone by ship completely around the sea to-be compared to eternity.

The River Glossary:

Textual:
eternity – life continuing without end after death foliage – a cluster of leaves, flowers, and branches
glancing – touching or hitting something lightly from the side, without causing much damage
hath – in the past, the third person singular form of the word ‘have’
headlong – with the head first and the rest of the body following
impetuous – acting quickly and without thought or care
rose-banks – riverbanks where roses (flowers) appear along
swelling – becoming greater in intensity or volume
tending – going in a particular way

## Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Poem Chapter 6 The Comet

You can Download The Comet Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Book Solutions Guide Pdf Poem Chapter 6 help you to revise complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Exploring the textbook concepts is not enough for students who dreamt to do a cakewalk in English grammar. Consistently do your learning and practicing session with Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Grammar study material and achieve all your dreams.

## Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Poem Chapter 6 The Comet

The Comet Poem Line By Line Explanation

The Comet Warm Up:

Fill in the crossword puzzle using the clues given below.

Across:
2. Earth’s only natural satellite
3. Morning star
6. Titan is the largest moon of
9. Smaller bodies in orbit around the Sun
10. The star at the centre of solar system
11. The Blue planet
12. Largest planet in the solar system

Down:
1. Smallest planet in the Solar system
2. Our Galaxy
4. Seventh planet from the sun
5. Distance travelled by light in a vacuum in one tropical year
7. Farthest planet in the Solar system
8. The Red planet

### The Comet And The Moon Poem Questions And Answers

A. Memories the first three stanzas of the poem.
B. Read the following lines from the poem and answer the questions in a sentence or two.

1. “Rampaging through the heavens Never stopping day or night, ”

Question (a).
How does the comet travel?
The comet travel by making a lot of noise and causing damage.

Question (b).
Which word could you replace ‘rampaging’ with?
a. charging b. rolling c. speeding d. flying
Rampaging can be replaced with charging.

2. “Faster than a cheetah With a tail that’s miles long.”

Question (a)
Why is the comet compared to a cheetah?
The cheetah is the fastest running animal. So the comet is compared to the cheetah.

Question (b).
Whose tail is compared here?
Comet’s tail is compared here.

3. “With shockwave reaching to the ground Causing the land to quake”

Question (a).
What is reaching to the ground?
The shockwave is reaching the ground.

Question (b).
What is causing the land to quake?
The shockwave causes the earth to quake.

4. “In the dust they leave behind,
Could have started life on the earth Which resulted in mankind”

Question (a).
What does the word ‘they’ refer to?
They refer to the comet.

Question (b).
According to scientists, how did life start on earth?
According to scientists, life started on earth from the dust.

5. “But I know no better spectacle Than a comet in full flight”

Question (a).
Who does ‘I’ refer to?
‘I’ refers to the poet, Norman Little ford.

Question (b).
What is the best spectacle mentioned in the above lines?
The best spectacle is the comet in full flight.

1. “A spectacle of a lifetime A comet in full flight.”

Question (a).
Why is it considered a ‘spectacle of a lifetime’?
The word spectacle indicates an unusual event that attracts attention. Hence it is considered a spectacle of a lifetime.

Question (b).
Describe a comet?
Comets are small, fragile, irregularly shaped bodies composed of a mixture of frozen gases.

2. “The outer ice is melting Causing vapor from the force, ”

Question (a).
Why is the outer ice melting?
The outer ice is found around the comet and it is melting because it speeds past the sun.

Question (b).
Why is the vapor spelt without an ‘u’?
‘Vapor’ is spelt without an ‘u’ since the poet Norman Littleford is an American.

3. “Rampaging through the heavens Never stopping day or night,
A spectacle of a lifetime A comet in full flight. ”

Question (a).
Pick out the rhyming words in the above lines.
The rhyming words are night and flight.

Question (b).
Give the rhyme scheme of the above stanza.
‘abcb’ is the rhyme scheme of the above stanza.

Question (c).
Mention the poetic device employed in the last line.
The poetic device employed in the last line is Alliteration.

4. “If one should come too close to earth
The atmosphere will shake,
With shockwave reaching to the ground .
Causing the land to quake.”

Question (a).
What does ‘one’ refer to?
‘One’ refers to the comet in full flight.

Question (b).
Why shouldn’t a comet come too close to earth?
A comet shouldn’t come too close to the earth since it will shake the atmosphere.

Question (c).
Pick out the rhyming words.
‘shake’ and ‘quake’ are the rhyming words.

5. “Scientists say the chemicals In the dust they leave behind,
Could have started life on the earth Which resulted in mankind.”

Question (a).
What do the scientist feel?
The scientists feel that the mankind started to emerge in this earth only from the chemicals left behind in the dust caused by the comets, when they fell on the earth.

Question (b)
Give the rhyme scheme of the above stanza.
‘abcb’ is the rhyme scheme of the above stanza.

Question (c).
Give the rhyming word for behind.
The rhyming word for behind is mankind.

C. Complete the summary by filling in the given spaces with suitable words/phrases given below.

The poet describes a moving comet which speeds through the heavens and never takes a break
by (1) ……………………When a comet is in full flight, it gives a (2) ………………….. which can never be compared to anything else for a lifetime. The comet is compared to (3) …………………….. for its speed and a mountain as it is (4) ………………. The (5) ………………… melts which causes a vapour from the force and leaves behind (6) ………………… as it travels on its way. If it comes very close to the atmosphere, it causes a shake which in turn produces a (7) ………………… that reach the Earth’s surface. According to the (8) ………………. the comets leave behind chemicals in the form of dust which resulted in the (9) ……………….. on earth and mankind came into existence. But the poet is not sure whether this principle is true. or not but he knows for sure that whatever the truth may be, the sight of the comet in full flight is the (10) …………………….. .

1. day or night
2. spectacular scene
3. a cheetah
4. powerful and strong
5. outer ice
6. a trail
7. shockwave
8. scientists
9. emerging of life
10. best spectacular

D. Poem appreciation

If one should come too close to the earth
The atmosphere will shake,
With shock wave reaching to the ground
Causing the land to quake.

Question 1.

Pick out the rhyming words.
Shake, quake.

Question 2.
Mention the rhyme scheme of the stanza.
‘abcb’ is the rhyme scheme of the above stanza.

Question 3.
When you read the poem aloud, you can feel/hear a rhythm. What according to you gives rhythm to the poem- the rhymes or the words in a line. Support your answer with examples from the poem.
While we are reading the poem, we come to know that it is a poem about the comet. The poem has six stanzas and each stanza consists of four lines. In every stanza of the poem, only the second and the fourth lines are rhyming. The other lines of each stanza do not rhyme.

Question 4.
What will happen when a comet will fall on the earth?
If the comet were to hit the Earth, it would cause a huge explosion.

Question 1.
Narrate how the poet describes the comet.
According to the poet, Norman Little ford, the comet is a remarkable scene for the generation to see when it is in full speed. It speeds past through the blue skies day and night without stopping. The poet says that the cheetah is not as fast as the comet. He instills the fact that the comet has a long tail which is more than a mile. The poet speaks about the strength of the comet and says that it is like a mountain, strong and powerful. The outer covering of ice melts when the comet goes near the sun.

Question 2.
Give a detailed account of the various effects caused by the comet on the earth.
As the comet speeds past, the poet says the outer ice covering melts, causing steam from the energy. It leaves a trail behind it as it travels on its course. If a comet comes close to the earth, the atmosphere will vibrate, sending a shockwave to the ground. It will also cause the land on earth to tremor. Scientists feel that the comets leave behind chemicals in the dust. This could have been the reason for life on the earth resulting in mankind.

Listening Activity:

F. Listen to the passage on ‘Comet’ and fill in the blanks by choosing the correct answer.

(For listening to the passage refer to our website www.fullcircleeducation.in) Comets, meteors, and asteroids have several things in common. First, they are believed to be remnants of the materials that created the Sun and the planets. Basically, they’re leftovers. Comets, meteors, and asteroids are too small to be planets. Some are only a few feet in size, while others are a mile or more long.
Comets are mostly made of ice. They are very old. As comets travel close to the Sun, some of the ice melts off and becomes a gas. This melting process causes bits of dust and debris to trail behind the comet. This tail can be seen in the night sky as a bright, quickly-moving light. Comets orbit at the very edge of the galaxy, past Pluto.

1. Comets are believed to be remnants of the materials created by the ……………………
(a) Moon
(b) Sun
(c) Star
(d) Asteroids
(b) Sun

2. Comets are mostly made of ……………………
(a) dust
(b) ice
(c) sand
(d) snow
(b) ice

3. The ………………. can be seen in the night sky as a bright, quickly-moving light.
(b) star
(c) tail
(d) wings
(c) tail

4. Comets orbit at the very edge of the galaxy, past the …………………….
(a) Earth
(b) Neptune
(c) Pluto
(d) Saturn
(c) Pluto

5. State whether the statement is true or false
The melting process causes bits of dust and debris to trail behind the comet.
True

Speaking:

G. Imagine you are interviewing an astronaut about his/her experiences in space. Select a partner to be an astronaut and present the interview as a role-play in front of the class.

Interviewer: How does it feel to be the first Indian to have accomplished this feat?
Astronaut: I feel unfortunate for the scientific community. I feel that my flight was before its time since our country’s space programme was not mature enough at that point to launch a space shuttle.
Interviewer: What was the reaction of your parents at this news?
Astronaut: It is indeed a moment of pride to represent the country, however they too knew the dangers behind it. Hence it was mixed verifications.
Interviewer: Is it different to travel in a space shuttle and an aeroplane?
Astronaut: There is an immense difference. The environment of space cannot be duplicated on earth. Hence training isn’t practical when it comes to the gravitational force. It’s tough to manage but you know you have no other go and your focus is on the achievement.
Interviewer: What are the qualities that you would credit your success to?
Astronaut: When you are in Rome be a Roman is the most important quality you need. Be bold, be optimistic, and realize that you are the chosen one to create opportunities and make history.
Astronaut: They never forced me into a career of their choice. They allowed me to go after my passion and stood by my side to explore the unknown world.
Interviewer: Thank you so much for taking time off your busy schedule.

Writing:

H. Imagine that you and your friend get a chance to visit another planet. There you befriend an alien who takes you around the planet. After reaching the earth, write a letter thanking him for all the help he did.

02-01-2019
Earth

Dear Alien,
‘I am glad that Jack and myself met you at Mars. I am sure we would have been lost without you. You were such a great moral and physical strength. Thanks for being a constant support to us. We are so glad to have found a friend in you. You made our journey memorable. We reached Earth safely last week and we felt we should thank you for all that you did for us when we were on Mars. Hope you too miss us just as we keep talking about you often and miss you so much. Do visit us in our planet Earth. Mother Earth is filled with greenery because of the water resources which is more than the land here.
Thank you for taking us around on Mars. It was great learning about the red planet, the fourth planet from the sun. I am surprised that there are high mountains and deep, long valleys in the solar system.
I hope to come again though it’s impossible. I seem to be dreaming of dwelling there and I keep imagining myself to be in conversation with you. Jack sends his wishes to you and feels the same for your friendship. Hoping to see you soon and take care.

Yours lovingly,
Chandran

The Comet by Norman Littleford About The Poet:

Norman Littleford (18 May 1889 – 20 May 1947) was an American poet, born in Maryland, USA. Most of his works focused on life and nature. His poems are simple but deep in thought and provoke the readers to absorb the ideas beyond the usual.

### The Comet Poem Summary in English By Norman Littleford

The poet here speaks about the spectacular sight of a comet at full speed. The poet observes how the comet rampages through the heavens continuously day and night. It moves faster than a cheetah with a tail that is miles long. It is as powerful and strong as a mountain. The outer ice melts, whose vapour leaves a long trail on its course. In case a comet approaches the Earth, it will shake the atmosphere and the shockwave will lead to an earthquake. Scientists believe that the chemicals left behind by the comet have given rise to life on Earth. The poet is not sure if that is true. However, he is well aware of the fact, that the passage of a comet is the best spectacular sight ever seen in his life.

The Comet Glossary:

## Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Mensuration Ex 7.1

9th Maths Mensuration Exercise 7.1 Question 1.
Using Heron’s formula, find the area of a triangle whose sides are
(i) 10 cm, 24 cm, 26 cm
(ii) 1.8 m, 8 m, 8.2 m
Solution:
(i) sides : 10 cm, 24 cm, 26 cm
Using Heron’s formula
Area of the triangle = $$\sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}$$ sq. units

9th Maths Mensuration Question 2.
The sides of the triangular ground are 22 m, 120 m and 122 m. Find the area and cost of leveling the ground at the rate of ₹ 20 per m2.
Solution:

9th Maths Book Mensuration ex 7.1 Question 3.
The perimeter of a triangular plot is 600 m. If the sides are in the ratio 5 : 12 : 13, then find the area of the plot.
Solution:
s = 600 m
Side s are in the ratio 5 : 12 : 13
5x + 12x + 13x = 30x

∴ sides are 200 m, 480 m, 520 m.

9th Maths 7.1 Mensuration Question 4.
Find the area of an equilateral triangle whose perimeter is 180 cm.
Solution:
Perimeter of an equilateral triangle = 180 cm

Question 5.
An advertisement board is in the form of an isosceles triangle with perimeter 36m and each of the equal sides are 13 m. Find the cost painting it at ₹ 17.50 per square metre.
Solution:

Cost of painting 1 m2 = ₹ 17.50
Cost of painting 60m2 = 60 × 17.50 = ₹ 1050

Question 6.
Find the area of the unshaded region.

Solution:

Question 7.
Find the area of a quadrilateral ABCD whose sides are AB = 13 cm, BC = 12 cm, CD = 9 cm, AD = 14 cm and diagonal BD = 15 cm
Solution:

Question 8.
A park is in the shape of a quadrilateral. The sides of the park are 15 m, 20m, 26 m and 17 m and the angle between the first two sides is a right angle. Find the area of the park.
Solution:

Question 9.
A land is in the shape of rhombus. The perimeter of the land is 160 m and one of the diagonal is 48 m. Find the area of the land.
Solution:
Perimeter of the rhombus land = 160 m

Question 10.
The adjacent sides of a parallelogram measures 34 m, 20 m and the measure of the diagonal is 42 m. Find the area of Parallelogram.
Solution:

## Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 Mother’s Voice

You can Download Mother’s Voice Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Book Solutions Guide Pdf Supplementary Chapter 6 help you to revise complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Exploring the textbook concepts is not enough for students who dreamt to do a cakewalk in English grammar. Consistently do your learning and practicing session with Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Grammar study material and achieve all your dreams.

## Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 6 Mother’s Voice

Mother’s Voice Supplementary In English

Mother’s Voice Warm Up:

If you are given an opportunity to go on a one-way trip to Mars, will you accept it? Discuss.
If given an opportunity to go on a one-way trip to Mars, I will not take it up since I am basically a timid person. When I am so frightened to travel by airplane, how will I travel to outer space!

### Mother’s Voice Textual Questions

Question 1.
Mother was excited because __________.
(a) her son would be home in the spring
(b) her son was coming back to earth
(c) it was her first visit to the moon
(d) her son was going to another galaxy
(c) it was her first visit to the moon

Question 2.
On weekdays, as Mother went about the chores __________.
(a) she constantly thought of her son
(b) she was always tired
(c) her singing would be soft and almost inaudible
(d) her singing was muted and a little sad
(d) her singing was muted and a little sad

Question 3.
__________ occupies more than a hundred square kilometers on the moon.
(a) Selenopolis
(b) Metropolis
(c) Astrodrome
(d) Orchards
(a) Selenopolis

Question 4.
The Community of Nations Square is where people __________.
(a) live on the moon
(b) work on the moon.
(c) walk on the moon
(d) of different nationalities come after work
(d) of different nationalities come after work

Question 5.
They are planning an expedition to a neighbouring __________.
(a) galaxy
(b) country
(c) planet
(d) star
(a) galaxy

Question 6.
The mother was not able to understand why people wanted to leave the moon because __________.
(a) it was better to remain as a part of solar-system
(b) it was better to remain on the earth
(c) it was not possible to come back
(d) it was a place to enjoy life
(a) it was better to remain as a part of the solar system.

Question 1.
The mother wanted to know if her son would come during ………………. .
(a) Summer
(b) Autumn
(c) Winter
(d) Spring
(b) Autumn

Question 2.
His mother looked at the enormous lily-shaped tent over a ……………….. .
(a) Plate
(b) crater
(c) sheet of ice
(d) galaxy
(b) crater

Question 3.
His mom preferred River ……………………… than Selenopolis.
(a) Dnieper
(b) Pluto
(c) Ganges
(d) Miami
(a) Dnieper

Question 4.
Since the pond is deepend, there will be a lot of …………….. .
(a) fresh water
(b) moss
(c) mosquitoes
(d) fish
(d) fish

Question 5.
The spaceships on the moon were readied for ……………….. .
(a) the scientists to travel.
(b) an expedition to the nearby galaxy
(c) the school students to explore
(d) a voyage around’ the moon.
(b) an expedition to the nearby galaxy

B. Identify the character or speaker of the following lines.

1. It’s so easy to walk here, son!
2. They’re planning an expedition to a neighboring galaxy.
3. Why should people go off into the unknown?
4. I don’t know when we’ll see each other again.
5. Operator on duty, ………. report to the office.

1. Mother
2. Son
3. Mother
4. Son
5. A voice from the loud Speaker

Identify the character or speaker of the following lines.

Astronaut’s Mom to Son:

1. I never realized it was such a beautiful place.
2. Back home the orchards are in bloom.
3. Will you come for a holiday in the summer?
4. I’m sure it’s better in the river Dnieper.
5. What are these?
6. Of course, you will walk on the dewy grass.
7. Why should people go off into the unknown?
8. Do you know why people settle down on the Moon so easily?
9. There will be a lot of fruits this year if only the frosts don’t strike.
11. These are very reliable spaceships.
12. At least try to come in the autumn.
13. They have deepened the pond.
14. You could visit your friends and relatives.
15. It’s full of fish now, you like fishing.

The young astronaut to his mother:

1. That’s why I asked you to come.
2. It’s easy to walk here but the distances are long.
3. People of different nationalities who work in Selenopolis come here after work.
4. Let’s ride for a bit.
5. The Community of Nations Square.
6. It’s quite an exotic experience to have a swim on the moon.
7. Long-range spaceships They’re planning an expedition to a neighboring galaxy.
8. You may be right, but
9. How do I know?
10. You think I don’t want to walk barefoot on the dewy grass?
11. Coming
12. These are very reliable spaceships.
13. There are some tourists.
14. Selenopolis occupies more than a hundred square kilometers.
15. They are walking towards the lake.

Question 1.
Write a paragraph listing all the sentimental and the scientific reasons given by the mother against the expedition to the neighbouring galaxy.
Title: Mother’s Voice
Author: Vasil Berezhnoy
Characters: Astronaut and his mother
Theme: “Distant scene enchants the eyes”.

The astronaut’s mother was excited because it was her first visit to the moon. She looked around and admired the moonscape. She wondered that the moon was a very beautiful place. However, her sentiments dominated her.

She thought of her orchards as it was the time for blooming. She was dumbfounded at the enormous lily-shaped tent over a crater of a kilometer in diameter. It might be an exotic experience to have a swim on the moon.

But she was quite sentimental about the swim in the river. The Dnieper on the Earth. Long-range spaceships were ready for an expedition to a neighbouring galaxy. She asked why people should go off into an unknown place.

She was worried about why should people invite trouble. The astronauts were keen on more expeditions. Their scientific thirst could never be quenched. Mother wanted the people to settle properly on the solar system, before going further. To his mother, living on the Earth seemed to be a miracle.

It was a cradle of life to her. Even she made her son realize the fabulous beauty of the native planet, Earth. She could make the astronaut feel that his expedition to another galaxy was not very significant.

But the astronaut had no other alternative as he had already got selected for space travel. It was a must for him but to the mother the life on the earth was everything, “There’s something cool about being involved in new missions to other planets” – David Grinspoon.

Question 1.
Describe Selenopolis.
Selenopolis is much easier to walk through though the distances are long. It occupies more than a hundred square kilometers. It’s a moving pavement covered with green plastic strips. These are rushed through echoing tunnels and spacious caves with walls sparkling in the light of the quartz lamps. There is a large lily-shaped tent over a crater, at least a kilometer in diameter. This was called, ‘The community of Nations Square.’ ‘People of different nationalities who work in Selenopolis and tourists go there to relax.

“The explorer in this story is traveling to another galaxy. The final destination is an unknown ‘ planet in another galaxy. The travel will take many years”. What qualities and life skills do you think an explorer-like him must possess? Why? Do you have any of these skills and qualities? Explain.
Space explorers work either as pilots who fly spacecraft or as mission specialists who conduct experiments. Regardless of their position, they need certain qualities to survive both NASA’s selection process and space travel itself. The qualities and life- skills needed are intelligence, adaptability, good physique, mental endurance and good ‘ knowledge. I have all these skills except the educational level which I would study as I grow up. ‘

Intelligence:
Astronauts need above-average intelligence and need quick thinking to A handle unexpected problems. They also need the intellectual creativity to dream up new avenues of space-based research into medicine, materials and processes for use N on Earth and in space. Curiosity is key, as are people skills and communication skills.

Astronauts have many responsibilities in space. They need the flexibility to move from one task to another, different task. They also work on teams with astronauts from other countries and cultures, so they must be open-minded to diversity. They must be willing to change routines to accommodate new procedures.

Physical Condition:
The rigors of space travel are just about as intense as the rigors of space training. Astronauts need eyesight of20/100 or better uncorrected, correctable to 20/20 in each eye. Their blood pressure can’t be above 140/90. Candidates also must meet military water survival standards, which test for the ability to swim without stopping and to swim and tread water clothed in flight gear.

Astronauts also must be SCUBA-qualified to prepare for spacewalk training. Their bodies must respond well to high and low atmospheric pressures. They also must be prepared for the physical effects of zero gravity training up to 40 times a day. Space travel can last for months, during which the human body must function amid physical stress.

Mental Endurance:
Astronauts who make it through the physical demands of space travel must also grapple with isolation, fear and separation from loved ones. It’s not easy to live in close quarters with virtual strangers for three to six months or more. Astronauts must begin to cope with those long periods away from home during training, which takes two to three years and requires heavy travel to practice with international mission partners.

Education:
Astronauts need a bachelor’s degree from an accredited university in engineering, biological science, physical science and maths.

E. Based on the understanding of the story, discuss in groups and make a note of the following.

Mother’s Voice by Vasil Berezhnoy About The Author:

In 1972, a group of authors were awarded the Rudaki Prize of the Tajik SSR, which shows the importance of Soviet Literature and the role played by Science fiction. Vasil Berezhnoy was surely one among the group of authors.

Mother’s Voice Supplementary Summary:

This story revolves around the feeling of a young astronaut who has volunteered to explore the 1 galaxy beyond the one he lived in. The entire conversation between the mother and son is the recording that he hears now and then. The beginning of the story sees him taking his mother to the moon. He shows her around. They walk through the Selenopolis, seeing tall structures that have propped up the star-studded sky. The son listens to his mother’s voice that is so dear to him. She talks to her son about the orchards, the river Dnieper where he used to go for fishing, the apples, pears and melons, the walk on the dewy grasses, their relatives whom he may never meet if he goes for this expedition.

Yet she hopes that he will come and visit her during his vacation. She tells how the planet earth is so rich and beautiful with snow-covered peaks, that there can never be a place like the planet earth. This makes the son look at the earth with a newer vision and he understands that his mother is right. It is never going to be the same in another galaxy far away from home and his mother.

But, now he is helpless and cannot change his decision of coming back to earth. He goes on explaining the things happening on the moon; how people come to the ‘Community of Nations Square’ after work for relaxation. He tells about the spaceships which is fully equipped for this major expedition. The mother watches the rockets with people assembling for a take off, and asks her son why someone yearns to leave their home and go to another galaxy instead of being happy with their own.

She tries to pursue her son to quit from this mission even though she knew she may never see her son again. Just then a voice from the loudspeaker asks the astronaut to report to duty and he turns off the button and the screen becomes blank. He often plays this recording to be in that moment with his mother. This kind of expedition is the result of young curious minds and humanity.

Mother’s Voice Glossary:

## Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 27 Hardware and Software

### Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Hardware and SoftwareTextbook Exercises

Question 1.
(a) Mother Board
(b) SMPS
(c) RAM
(d) Mouse
(d) Mouse

Question 2.
Which of the following is correct?
(a) Free and Open source
(c) Passive and Open source
(a) Free and Open source

Question 3.
LINUX is a ……………..
(a) Paid Software
(c) Free and Proprietary software
(d) Free and Open source software
(d) Free and Open source software

Question 4.
Find out the Paid and Proprietary software from the given list.
(a) Windows
(b) MAC OS
(d) All the above
(d) All the above

Question 5.
……………….. is an Operating System.
(a) Android
(b) Chrome
(c) Internet
(d) Pendrive
(a) Android

II. Match the following.

1. MAC OS – (a) Free and Open-source Software
2. Software – (b) Paid and Proprietary Software
3. Hardware – (c) Input Device
4. Keyboard – (d) RAM
5. LINUX – (e) Geogebra

1. (b) Paid and Proprietary Software
2. (e) Geogebra
3. (d) RAM
4. (c) Input Device
5. (a) Free and Open-source Software

Question 1.
What are Hardware and Software?
Hardware: Hardware refers to the parts of a computer which we can touch and feel. Hardware includes Input and Output devices, Cabinet, Hard Disk, Mother Board, SMPS, CPU, RAM, CD Drive, and Graphics card.
Software: Software are programmed and coded applications to process input information.

Question 2.
What do you mean by Operating System? How does it work?
The operating system or System software is a software that makes the hardware devices process the data fed by the user and to display the result on the output devices like Monitor. Without the operating system, the computer cannot function on its own.

Question 3.
What is Free and Open Source Software? Give any two examples?

1. Free and Open Source Software is available free of cost and can be shared with many end-users.
2. Free software is editable and customizable by the user and this leads to the update or development of new software.
Examples of Free and Open Source Software are LINUX, Open office, Geogebra, etc.

### Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Hardware and Software Additional Questions

Question 1.
………………. is a group of programs designed for the benefit of end-user to work on the computer.
(a) System software
(b) Application software
(c) Paid and Proprietary Software
(d) Free and open-source software
(b) Application software

Question 2.
…………….. is lifeless without software.
(a) Software
(b) Hardware
(c) System
(d) Application
(b) Hardware

Question 3.
The license of ……………. would not be provided unless it is purchased.
(a) free and open-source software
(b) system software
(c) paid and proprietary software
(d) application software
(c) paid and proprietary software

II. Match the following.

1. Editing software – (a) Paid and Proprietary Software
2. Android – (b) Monitor
3. Windows – (c) System software
4. Output device – (d) Application software

1. (d) Application software
2. (c) System software
3. (a) Paid and Proprietary Software
4. (b) Monitor

Question 1.
What do you mean by application software?
Application software is a program or a group of programs designed for the benefit of the end-user to work on the computer. The application programs can be installed on the hard disk for usage on a particular computer. This type of application program completes one or more than one work of the end-user. The following are examples of the application program: Video player, Audio player, Word processing software, Drawing tools, Editing software, etc.

Question 2.
What are the types of software?
The software is divided into two types based on the process. They are:

1. System software (Operating System)
2. Application software

Question 3.
What are the types of system and application software?
The operating system and application software are available in two forms. They are:

1. Free and Open-source Software
2. Paid and Proprietary Software

Question 4.
What is Paid and Proprietary Software? Give examples.
There is software that needs a license to use it. They have to be paid for using either permanently or temporarily. The license of the software would not be provided unless it is purchased. Similarly, the end-users are legally prohibited to steal the software program or to use the pirated version of the Paid and Proprietary Software. Some of the examples of Paid and Proprietary Software are Windows, Microsoft Office, Adobe Photoshop, etc.

## Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 26 Parts of Computer

### Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Parts of ComputerTextbook Exercises

Question 1.
Which one of the following is an output device?
(a) Mouse
(b) Keyboard
(c) Speaker
(d) Pendrive
(c) Speaker

Question 2.
Name the cable that connects CPU to the Monitor.
(a) Ethernet
(b) VGA
(c) HDMI
(d) USB
(b) VGA

Question 3.
Which one of the following is an input device?
(a) Speaker
(b) Mouse
(c) Monitor
(d) Printer
(b) Mouse

Question 4.
Which one of the following is an example for wireless connections?
(a) Wi-Fi
(b) Electric wires
(c) VGA
(d) USB
(a) Wi-Fi

Question 5.
Pen drive is ………… device.
(a) Output
(b) Input
(c) Storage
(d) Connecting cable
(c) Storage

II. Match the following.

1. Bluetooth – (a) Connecting cable
2. Printer – (b) LDMI
3. Keyboard – (c) Wireless connection
4. HDMI – (d) Output device

1. (c) Wireless connection
2. (d) Output device
3. (b) LDMI
4. (a) Connecting cable

Question 1.
Name the parts of a computer.
Three parts of the computer are:

1. Input Unit
2. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
3. Output Unit.

Question 2.
Bring out any two differences between input and output devices.

 Input Device Output Device The devices that are used to enter data are called input devices. The Output device converts the command received by the computer in the form of binary signals into easily understandable characters Example: Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, Barcode reader Example: Monitor, Printer, Speaker, scanner

### Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Parts of Computer Additional Questions

Question 1.
How are computers classified?
The computers can be classified based on their design, shape, speed, efficiency, working of the memory unit and their applications. The computers can be classified as follows;

1. Mainframe Computer
2. Mini Computer
3. Micro or personal computer
4. Supercomputer

Question 2.
Name two wireless connections and how it is used.
Bluetooth, Wi-Fi is used to connect to the internet without using any connecting cables.

• Bluetooth: Mouse, Keyboard can be connected to the computer using Bluetooth.
Used in sharing data with nearby devices.
• Wi-Fi: Net connectivity can be obtained using Wi-Fi without any connecting cables. Any data from anywhere can be shared using Wi-Fi.

Question 3.
What is a memory unit and where is it present?
The memory unit in the computer saves all data and information temporarily. It is present in the Central Processing Unit (CPU) which is the brain of the Computer.

Question 1.
Explain the types and functions of cables.
The types of cable include Video Graphics Array (VGA), High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI), Universal Serial Bus (USB), Data cable, Power Cord, Mic cable, Ethernet cable.

## Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 25 Computer – An Introduction

### Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Computer – An IntroductionTextbook Exercises

Question 1.
……………. is an electronic device which stores data and information.
(a) Telescope
(b) Television
(c) Computer
(c) Computer

Question 2.
…………….. belongs to the generation IV of the computer.
(a) Microprocessor
(b) Artificial intelligence
(c) Transistor
(d) Vacuum Tubes
(a) Microprocessor

Question 3.
Data processing involves ……………. steps.
(a) seven
(b) four
(c) six
(d) eight
(c) six

Question 4.
(i) Abacus belongs to the first generation of the computer.
(ii) ENIAC was used in the American military.
(a) Both the statements are correct
(b) Statement (i) is wrong but (ii) is correct
(c) Statement (i) is correct but (ii) is wrong
(d) Both the statements are wrong.
(a) Both the statements are correct

II. Match the following.

1. III generation computer – (a) Integrated circuit
2. Text, number – (b) Information
3. Transistor – (c) Father of computer
4. Directly used – (d) Data
5. Charles Babbage – (e) II generation

1. (a) Integrated circuit
2. (d) Data
3. (e) II generation
4. (b) Information
5. (c) Father of computer

III. Answer the following in brief.

Question 1.
Define computer.

• A computer is an electronic device, which manipulates and stores data and information through commands or program codes.
• The computer operates by the exchange of commands between the hardware and software. Hardware can be touched and felt, but the software cannot be.

Question 2.
Differentiate data and information.

 S.No DATA INFORMATION 1 Data is used as input for the computer system Information is the output of data 2 Data doesn’t depend on information Information depends on data 3 Data is not specific Information is specific 4 Data doesn’t carry a meaning The information must carry a logical meaning

Question 3.
What is data processing?
The data processing in a computer is collecting data and converting it into information according to our needs and requirements.

IV. Answer the following in detail:-

Question 1.
What are the different steps involved in data processing?
The steps in Data Processing: Data processing has six steps. They are:

• Data collection
• Data storage
• Data sorting
• Data processing
• Data analysis
• Data presentation and conclusions

Question 2.
List out the generations of computers.

 PERIOD GENERATION DIGITAL DEVICES 1940- 1956 1 Generation Vacuum tubes 1956 -1963 II Generation Transistor 1964-1971 HI Generation Integrated circuits 1972-2010 IV Generation Microprocessors After-2010 V Generation Artificial Intelligence

### Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Computer – An Introduction Additional Questions

I. Fill in the blanks.

1. ………………. is an electronic device which manipulates and stores data and information.
2. Lady Augusta Ada Lovelace was honored as the first programmer for programming ……………..
3. The computer operates by the exchange of ……………… between the hardware and software.
4. ……………. designed the basic constructions of a computer.
5. The first and basic method of computing is ………………..