Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 4 Forms of Government

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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 4 Forms of Government

Forms of Government Textual Exercise

I. Fill in the blanks.
1. ……… are the few examples for unitary form of government.
2. The Parliamentary government is also known as ……..
3. In the parliamentary form of government ….. is the leader of majority party.
Answers:
1. England, France
2. cabinet government
3. Prime Minister

II. Fill in the blanks.

Question 1.

Country Name of the Parliament
USA …………..
Norway …………..
………… Folketing

Answer:

Country Name of the Parliament
USA Congress
Norway Storting
Denmark Folketing

III. Distinguish Between.

Question 1.
Unitary and federal forms of government.
Answer:

Unitary form of government Federal form of government
Only one Level of Government or Sub units Two Levels of Government
Mostly Single Citizenship Dual Citizenship
Sub Units cannot operate independently Federal Units are answerable to Central Government
No Division of Power Division of Power
Centralisation of Power Decentralisation of Power

Question 2.
Parliamentary and presidential form of government.
Answer:

Parliamentary form of government Presidential form of government
Majority Party Rules The President is elected by an electoral college for a fixed tenure of four years.
Collective Responsibility The President governs with the help of a cabinet or a smaller body called ‘Kitchen Cabinet’.
Leadership of the Prime Minister The President is both the head of the State and the head of government.

IV. Give short note on:

Question 1.
Unitary form of government
Answer:
A unitary system of government or unitary state, is a sovereign state governed as a single entity. The central government is supreme and the administrative divisions exercise only powers that the central government has delegated to them. England, France, Japan and SriLanka are examples of Unitary Form of governments. In a Unitary form of government, all the authority and power is vested in a single centre, whereas in a federal form of government authority and power is distributed between centre and the constituent units. Even in a Unitary form of Government, there might be a lot of decentralisation of authority, but we cannot claim it as a federal system.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 4 Forms of Government

V. Answer the following.

Question 1.
List out the types of constitution.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 4 Forms of Government 1

Question 2.
What are the merits of a federal government?
Answer:
Merits of federal form of government

  • Reconciliation of local autonomy with national unity.
  • Division of power between centre and states leads to administrative efficiency.
  • It gives rise to big states
  • Distribution of powers check the despotism of central government.
  • More suitable for bigger countries.
  • It is good for economic and cultural progress.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 4 Forms of Government

Question 3.
Write down the differences between unitary form of government and federal form of
government.
Answer:

Unitary form of government Federal form of government
Only one Level of Government or Sub units Two Levels of Government
Mostly Single Citizenship Dual Citizenship
Sub Units cannot operate independently Federal Units are answerable to Central Government                             ,
No Division of Power Division of Power
Centralisation of Power Decentralisation of Power

VI. Answer in detail.

Question 1.
Write about the merits of unitary form of government.
Answer:
Merits of unitary form of government

  • Suitable for small countries.
  • There is no conflict of authority and responsibility.
  • A unitary government will make prompt decisions and take speedy action.
  • A unitary government is less expensive.
  • Amendments to the constitution are easy.
  • There is unity, uniformity of law, policy and administration.

Question 2.
Write about the presidential form of government and what is the difference between presidential and parliamentary forms of government.
Answer:
The Presidential Form Of Government is also known as non-responsible or non-parliamentary or fixed executive system of government, basically built on the principle of separation of power and is prevalent in the USA, Brazil, Russia and Sri Lanka among others.

The American President is both the head of the State and the head of government. As the head of State, he occupies a ceremonial position. As the head of government, he leads the executive organ of the government.

The President is elected by an electoral college for a fixed tenure of four years. He cannot be removed by the Congress, except by impeachment for a grave unconstitutional act.

The President governs with the help of a cabinet or a smaller body called ‘Kitchen Cabinet’. It is only an advisory body and consists of non-elected departmental secretaries. They are selected and appointed by him, are responsible only to him and can be removed by him any time.

The President and his secretaries are not responsible to the Congress for their acts. They neither possess membership in the Congress, nor attend its sessions.

Differences between presidential and parliamentary forms of government are:

Parliamentary form of government Presidential form of government
Prime Minister is from the majority party President is directly elected by the People
Central Legislature is supreme President is Supreme
Absence of Separation Powers Centralisation Separation of Powers
Independent branches with Overlapping functions Independent branches
President – Head of the State President – Head of the State
Prime Minister – Head of the Government President – Head of the Government
Collective leadership Individual Leadership
Collective and Individual Responsibility President is not accountable to Congress

Forms of Government Additional Questions

I. Fill in the blanks.

1. ……. is the main agency of the state.
2. The three organs in government are …….., ……… and ……….
3. ……… is the oldest form of government in the United Kingdom.
4. An example of Fedral form of Government ……..
5. The …… system of government is the one in which the executive is responsible to the legislature for its policies and acts.
6. The …… form of government is prevalent in U.S.A.
7. The President governs with the help of a cabinet (or) a small body called …… in Presidential form of government.
8. An unprecedented development forced the ……… to step down and paved the way for Democracy.
9. Gross National Happiness was first mentioned in the constitution of Bhutan, which was enacted on ……
10. …… and …….. are synonyms, both denoting the exercise of authority in an organization, institution (or) state.
Answers:
1. Government
2. legislature, executive, judiciary
3. Monarchy
4. Argentina
5. Parliamentary
6. Presidential
7. Kitchen Cabinet
8. King Gyanendra.
9. 18th July 2008
10. Government, Governance

II. Fill up.

Country Name of the Parliament
Israel ……………………..
Bundstag

Answer:

Country Name of the Parliament
Israel Knesset
Germany Bundstag

III. Distinguish the following:

Question 1.
Monarchy and Democracy
Answer:

Monarchy Democracy
A form of govememtn with a Monarch as the head. The government is headed by elected representatives.
Power is passed through heritage and bloodline. This principally supports election.

IV. Answer the following.

Question 1.
What is the meaning of Government?
Answer:
‘Government’ refers to the executive functions of the state. It denotes a body having authority to make and enforce laws applicable to the civil, corporate, religious, academic of other groups.

Question 2.
From where did the term Government was derived?
Answer:
The term Government is derived from Old French ‘governer’, derived from Latin ‘gubernare’ to direct, rule, guide, govern”.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 4 Forms of Government

Question 3.
Mention the demerits of Unitary form of Government.
Answer:

  • It is not suitable for big countries.
  • The central government will have to tackle so many complex problems that lead to administrative delay
  • The central government will not concentrate on local problems, local interest and initiative.
  • The concentration of powers may pave way for the despotism of the central government.

Question 4.
State the feature of Parliamentary form of governance.
Answer:
Features of parliamentary form of government

  • Nominal and Real Executives
  • Majority Party Rule
  • Collective Responsibility
  • Dual Membership
  • Leadership of the Prime Minister

Question 5.
State the merits of the Presidential system of government.
Answer:
Merits of the presidential system of government

  • Democratic
  • Effective Control by the President
  • Facilitate decision-making
  • State government

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 4 Forms of Government

Question 6.
Write down the characteristics of good governance.
Answer:
Characteristics of good governance:

  • Participation
  • Rule Of Law
  • Transparency
  • Responsiveness
  • Consensus Orientation
  • Equity
  • Effectiveness And Efficiency
  • Accountability

V. Answer in detail.

Question 1.
Explain the Federal form of Government.
Answer:
The classification of governments into unitary and federal is based on the nature of relations between the national and the regional governments.

A federal government is one in which powers are divided between the national government and the regional governments by the Constitution itself and both operate in their respective jurisdictions independently. U.S.A, Switzerland, Australia, Canada, Russia, Brazil, Argentina have federal form of governments. In a federal model, the national government is known as the Federal government or the Central government or the Union government and the regional government is known as the state government or the provincial government.

Merits of federal form of government

  • Reconciliation of local autonomy with national unity
  • Division of power between centre and states leads to administrative efficiency
  • It gives rise to big states
  • Distribution of powers check the despotism of central government
  • More suitable for bigger countries
  • It is good for economic and cultural progress

De-merits of federal form of government

  • Federal government is weaker when compared to the unitary government.
  • Federal government is more expensive
  • Provincial tendencies are very common
  • Lack of uniformity in Administration
  • Threat to national unity
  • Distribution of powers between centre and states lead to conflicts
  • Double Citizenship
  • Rigid constitution cannot be mended easily for changing needs
  • The state governments sometimes place hindrances in the foreign policy.

Federal features of the Indian constitution

  • Dual Government
  • Written Constitution
  • Division of Powers
  • Supremacy of the Constitution. The Constitution is the supreme law of the land. The laws enacted by the Centre and the states must confirm to its provisions.
  • Rigid Constitution
  • Independent Judiciary
  • Bicameralism

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 4 Forms of Government

Question 2.
Explain Gross National Happiness.
Answer:
Gross National Happiness is a developing philosophy as well as an ‘index’ which is used to measure the collective happiness in any specific nation.The concept was first mentioned in the constitution of Bhutan, which was enacted on 18 July 2008.

The term ‘Gross National Happiness’ was coined by the fourth king of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, in the 1970s. The GNH’s central tenets are: “Sustainable and equitable socio-economic development; environmental conservation; preservation and promotion of culture; and good governance”. GNH is distinguishable by valuing collective happiness as the goal of governance and by emphasising harmony with nature and traditional values.

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