Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 21 Nutrition and Health

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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 21 Nutrition and Health

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Nutrition and Health Textbook Exercises

I. Choose the best answer.

Question 1.
The nutrient required in trace amounts to accomplish various body functions is ………………
(a) Carbohydrate
(b) Protein
(c) Vitamin
(d) Fat
Answer:
(c) Vitamin

Question 2.
The physician who discovered that Scurvy can be cured by ingestion of citrus fruit is …………….
(a) James Lind
(b) Louis Pasteur
(c) Charles Darwin
(d) Isaac Newton
Answer:
(a) James Lind

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Question 3.
The sprouting of onion and potatoes can be delayed by the process of ………………
(a) Freezing
(b) Irradiation
(c) Salting
(d) Canning
Answer:
(b) Irradiation

Question 4.
Food and Adulteration Act was enacted by the Government of India in the year ………………..
(a) 1964
(b) 1954
(c) 1950
(d) 1963
Answer:
(b) 1954

Question 5.
An internal factor responsible for spoilage of food is ………………..
(a) Wax coating
(b) Contaminated utensils
(c) Moisture content in food
(d) Synthetic preservatives
Answer:
(c) Moisture content in food

II. Fill in the blanks.

  1. Deficiency diseases can be prevented by taking ………………. diet.
  2. The process of affecting the natural composition and the quality of food substance is known as …………………
  3. Vitamin D is called as …………….. vitamin as it can be synthesised by the body from the rays
    of the sunlight.
  4. Dehydration is based on the principle of removal of ………………..
  5. Food should not be purchased beyond the date of ………………..
  6. AGMARK is used to certify ……………. and ……………. products on India.

Answer:

  1. balanced
  2. Food spoilage
  3. Calciferol
  4. water
  5. expiry
  6. Livestock, Agricultural products

III. Mention whether the following statements are true or false. If false, write the correct statement.

  1. Iron is required for the proper functioning of thyroid gland – False.
    Correct Statement: Iodine is required for the proper functioning of thyroid gland.
  2. Vitamins are required in large quantities for normal functioning of the body – False.
    Correct Statement: Vitamins are required in small quantities for normal functioning of the body.
  3. Vitamin C is a water-soluble Vitamin – True
  4. Lack of adequate fats in the diet may result in low body weight – True
  5. ISI mark is mandatory to certify agricultural products – False.
    Correct Statement: AGMARK is mandatory to certify Agricultural products.

IV. Match column A with column B.

Calcium – (a) Muscular fatigue
Sodium – (b) Anaemia
Potassium – (c) Osteoporosis
Iron – (d) Goitre
Iodine – (e) Muscular cramps
Answer:

  1. (c) Osteoporosis
  2. (e) Muscular cramps
  3. (a) Muscular fatigue
  4. (b) Anaemia
  5. (d) Goitre

V. Fill in the blanks with suitable answers.

Question 1.

Vitamin Rich Source Deficiency Disease
Calciferol Rickets
     – papaya Night blindness
Ascorbic acid
whole grains Beriberi

Answer:

Vitamin Rich Source Deficiency Disease
Calciferol liver Rickets
Retinol papaya Night blindness
Ascorbic acid Citrus fruits Scurvy
Thiamine whole grains Beriberi

VI. Give abbreviations for the following food standards.

  1. ISI – Indian Standards Institution.
  2. FPO – Fruit Process Order.
  3. AGMARK – Agricultural Marking.
  4. FCI – Food Corporation of India.
  5. FSSAI – Food Safety and Standard Authority of India.

VII. Assertion and reason.

Direction: In the following question, a statement of a Assertion is given and a corresponding Reason is given just below it. Of the statements given below, mark the correct answer as:
(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion.
(c) If Assertion is true but Reason is false.
(d) If both Assertion and Reason is false.
Question 1.
Assertion: Haemoglobin contains iron.
Reason: Iron deficiency leads to anaemia.
Answer:
(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.

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Question 2.
Assertion: AGMARK is a quality control agency.
Reason: ISI is a symbol of quality.
Answer:
(d) If both Assertion and Reason is false.

VIII. Very short answers questions.

Question 1.
Differentiate
Answer:
(a) Kwashiorkor from Marasmus

Kwashiorkor Marasmus
1. It affects children between 1 to 5 years. It affects infants, below the age of one year.
2. Occurs due to the diet mainly consists of carbohydrates, but poor in proteins. Occurs, when the diet is poor in carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

(b) Macronutrients from micronutrients

Macronutrients Micronutrients
1. Nutrients required in large amount for the proper functions of the cells. Nutrients required in very amount for the proper functions of the cells.
2. Calcium, potassium, sodium etc, are  some macronutrients. Iron, iodine etc are some micro-nutrients.

Question 2.
Why salt is used as a preservative in food.
Answer:

  1. It removes the moisture content in the food.
  2. Prevents the growth of bacteria.
  3. Reduces the activity of microbial enzymes.+

Question 3.
What is an adulterant?
Answer:
An adulterant is an undesirable substance added to the food against the food safety standards.

Question 4.
A doctor advises an adolescent girl who is suffering from anaemia to include more of leafy vegetables and dates in her diet. Why so?
Answer:
The disease Anaemia occurs due to the deficiency of the mineral iron. Iron is an important component of haemoglobin. Haemoglobin in the blood carries oxygen from the lungs to the body, so the doctor advises the girl to take leafy vegetables as they are the sources of itpn.

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Question 5.
Name any two naturally occurring toxic substances in food.
Answer:
Alkaloids and Aflatoxin.

Question 6.
What factors are required for the absorption of Vitamin D from the food by the body?
Answer:
The factor that regulates the absorption of Vitamin D is the presence of dietary fat (Egg, Liver, Dairy products, Fish, etc). When our body absorbs this fat, it also absorbs the dissolved Vitamin D. When the sun rays fall on the skin, the fat is converted into Vitamin D.

IX. Short answers.

Question 1.
Write any one function of of the following minerals.

  1. Calcium
  2. Sodium
  3. Iron
  4. Iodine

Answer:

  1. Calcium: Enamel of teeth.
  2. Sodium: Maintains fluid balance.
  3. Iron: Important component of Haemoglobin, which carries Oxygen from Lungs to body.
  4. Iodine: Formation of Thyroid hormone.

Question 2.
Explain the two methods of food preservation.
Answer:

  • SMOKING:
    Food products like Meat and Fish are exposed to smoke. The drying action of the smoke tends to preserve the food.
  • Use of Inert gas:
    Nitrogen gas is filled in air tight packets of Potato wafers and other products. It prevents the growth of fungus and insects in them.

Question 3.
What are the effects of consuming adulterated food?
Answer:

  • Increases the impurity in the food items
  • Lack of Nutritional value
  • Leads to various diseases

X. Give one reason for the following statements.

(a) Salt is added as a preservative in Pickles.
Answer:
Addition of salt removes the moisture content in the food by the process of Osmosis.

(b) We should not eat food items beyond the expiry date.
Answer:
Toxins are produced by the Bacteria (or) by the enzymes.

(c) Deficiency of Calcium in diet leads to poor skeletal growth
Answer:
Deficiency of Calcium in diet leads to poor skeletal growth because of bone deformities and Osteoporosis in adults.

XI. Long answer questions.

Question 1.
How are Vitamins useful to us? Tabulate the source, deficiency diseases and symptoms of fat soluble Vitamins.
Answer:
Vitamins boost the immune system, support normal growth and development.

 

Vitamins Sources Deficiency disorders Symptoms
Fat Soluble Vitamins                                                                                        .
Vitamin A (Retinol) Carrot, papaya, leafy vegetables, fish liver oil, egg yolk, liver, dairy products Xerophthalmia Nyctalopia (Night blindness) Dryness of Cornea Unable to see in the night (dim light) Scaly Skin
Vitamin D (Calciferol) Egg, liver, dairy products, fish synthesized by the skin in sunlight Rickets (in children) Bowlegs, defective ribs, development of pigeon chest
Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Whole wheat, meat, vegetable oil, milk Sterility in rats, reproductive abnormalities Sterility
Vitamin K (Derivative of Quinone) Leafy vegetables, soya beans, milk Blood clotting is prevented Excessive bleeding due to delayed blood clotting

Question 2.SamacheerKalvi.Guru

Explain the role of food control agencies in India.
Answer:

  1. ISI (Indian Standards Institution) known as Bureau of Indian Standard. It Certifies Industrial products like Electrical appliances like switches, wiring cables, water heater, electric motor, kitchen appliances etc.
  2. AGMARK (Agricultural Marking) certifies Agricultural and Livestock products like cereals/essential oils, pulses, honey, butter etc.
  3. FPO (Fruit Process Order) certifies the Fruit products like Juice, jams, sauce, canned fruits and vegetables, pickles etc.
  4. FSSAI ( Food Safety and Standards Authority of India) responsible for protecting and promoting public health through regulation and supervision of food safety.

XII. Higher Order Thinking Skills.

Question 1.
The doctor advises an adolescent girl who is suffering from anaemia to include more of leafy vegetables and dates in her diet. Why so?
Answer:
Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in adolescent girls. Insufficient iron can lead to anaemia. Leafy vegetables and dates are rich in iron and other minerals. So the doctor advises to include more of these in the diet.

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Question 2.
Sanjana wants to buy a jam bottle in a grocery shop. What are the things she should observe on the label before purchasing it?
Answer:

  1. Name of the product
  2. Manufacturer’s details, Contents/Ingredients
  3. Net Weight
  4. Maximum Retail Price (MRP)
  5. Date of Manufacture
  6. Date of Expiry
  7. Date of best before use

Activity

Question 1.
Let each of the student bring any food packet (jam, juice, pickle, bread, biscuit, etc). Note down the details like name of the product, manufacturer’s details, contents/ ingredients, net weight, Maximum Retail Price (MRP), date of manufacture, date of expiry/best before twelve months from the date of manufacture and standardized marks like ISI, AGMARK or FPO printed on the label for each of the items to create awareness.
Answer:

  • Name of the product – Thenkuzhal.
  • Manufacturer’s details – Sri Krishna Sweets. Handmade to provide authentic taste.
  • Ingredients – Rice flour, Refined vegetable oil, Urud dhal, Butter, Iodized salt, Cumin, Asafoetida.
  • Net weight – 500 gms.
  • Maximum Retail Prize – (MRP) ? 100.
  • Date of Manufacture – 09.04.2018.
  • Date of Expiry – Best before 30 days from the date of manufacture.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Nutrition and Health Additional Questions

I. Fill in the blanks.

  1. Carbohydrates are the chief source of …………………
  2. …………… also known as Triglycerides are the Esters of free fatty acid chains and Glycerol.
  3. ………………. are the constituents of teeth, bones, tissues, blood, muscle and nerve cells.
  4. Vitamin Bl, B2, B3, B6, B12 and Vitamin C are ……………… soluble vitamins.
  5. In ………………, the food materials are kept inside a cold room in a temperature range of 23°C to 30°C.
  6. …………….. is declared as Global Iodine Deficiency Day.
  7. ………………… regulates the nerve and muscle activity.
  8. ……………. are the enzymes involved in the breakdown of fats in the small intestine during the process of digestion.
  9. ……………….. is found in Honey, Sugarcane and fruits.
  10. ……………… is stored in our liver and muscles.

Answer:

  1. energy
  2. Fats
  3. Calcium
  4. Water
  5. Deep freezing
  6. October 21st
  7. Potassium
  8. Lipase
  9. Sucrose
  10. Glycogen

II. Mention whether the following statements are True or False. If False give the correct statements.

  1. Carbohydrates are inorganic compounds composed of Nitrogen, Sulphur and Potassium – False.
    Correct Statement: Carbohydrates are Organic compounds, composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
  2. Proteins are polymer chains made of Amino acids linked together by Peptide bonds. – True
  3. Goitre is the swelling of the region below the neck, due to the enlargement of Thyroid gland, due to Calcium deficiency – False.
    Correct Statement: Goitre is the swelling of the region below the neck, due to the enlargement of Thyroid gland, due to Iodine deficiency.
  4. Addition of oil in pickles prevents the contact of air with the pickle – True
  5. The synthetic preservatives do not delay the microbial growth and do not keep the food safe for long duration – False.
    Correct Statement: The synthetic preservatives delay the microbial growth and keep the food safe for long duration.
  6. Dried Neem leaves and turmeric are used to store food grains in our home to protect the grain from insects and Beetles – True
  7. Food should be pure, nutritious and free from any adulteration for proper maintenance of human health – True

III. Answer shortly.

Question 1.
What is Malnutrition?
Answer:
Absence of certain nutrients in our daily diet over a long period of time leads to deficiency diseases. This condition is called Malnutrition.

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Question 2.
Name any two Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) diseases.
Answer:

  1. Kwashiorkor.
  2. Marasmus.

Question 3.
Define Vitaminosis. Give an example.
Answer:
Any disease caused by the presence of an excess of Vitamin is called as Vitaminosis.
Example. An excess of Vitamin A is called Hyper Vitaminosis A.

Question 4.
What is a balanced diet?
Answer:
A diet containing essential nutrients in right proportion for normal growth and development and to prevent Malnutrition is called Balanced diet.

Question 5.
What are the signs of the food spoilage?
Answer:
Change in the appearance of food, its colour, texture, odour and taste are some of the signs of food spoilage.

Question 6.
Why is food preserved?
Answer:

  1. To increase the shelf life of food.
  2. To retain the colour, texture, flavour and nutritive value.
  3. To increase the food supply.
  4. Decrease the wastage of food.

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Question 7.
How does microbial contamination occur?
Answer:
Microbial contamination occurs due to the presence of pathogens like Escherichia coli, Salmonella in fruits, vegetables, and ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

IV. Match the following.

Question 1.

Potassium Dermatitis
Vitamin B6 Pellagra
Omega – 3 A vital solvent
Vitamin B3 Muscular fatigue
Water Essential fatty acid

Answer:

  1. (d) Muscular fatigue
  2. (a) Dermatitis
  3. (e) Essential fatty acid
  4. (b) Pellagra
  5. (c) a Vital solvent

V. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
What is food spoilage? What are the factors responsible for food spoilage?
Answer:
Food spoilage is an undesirable change in the food’s normal state and is not suitable for eating is called food spoilage. There are two factors responsible for food spoilage.

  1. Internal Factors: Internal factors include enzymatic activities and moisture content of the food.
  2. External Factors: External factors like adulterants in food, lack of storage facilities, Unhygienic cooking area, microorganisms etc are responsible for food spoilage.

Question 2.
Explain the types of adulterants.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 21 Nutrition and Health 1
There are three types of Adulterants. They are as follows.

  1. Natural Adulterants:
    Natural toxic substances occur in poisonous Mushrooms, Prussic acid in seeds of apples, cherry etc, marine toxins, fish oil poisoning etc, Pollutants in air, water and land are also Natural pollutants.
  2. Unintentional Adulterants:
    Some adulterants are added unknowingly by Pesticide residues, Droppings of Rodents, Insects, rodent bites and larva in food during its storage.
  3. Intentional Adulterants:
    • Addition of preservatives like Vinegar, Citric acid, Sodium bicarbonate, Hydrogen peroxide in milk, food flavors, Artificial sweeteners etc,
    • Addition of chemicals like Calcium Carbide to ripen the bananas and Mangoes.
    • Food colour like Metallic Lead is used to give colours for vegetables like Bitter Gourd, Peas etc.
    • Edible synthetic wax like Shellac or Camauba wax is coated on fruits like Apple and pear.

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Question 3.
Explain some simple techniques used to detect adulterants at home.
Answer:

  1. Milk:
    Place a drop of milk on a polished surface. Pure milk flows slowly, leaving a trail behind. Milk with water will flow fast, without leaving a trail.
  2. Honey:
    Dip a cotton wick in Honey and light it with a match stick. Pure Honey bums, but adulterated honey gives a cracking sound.
  3. Sugar:
    Dissolve sugar. If chalk powder is added as an adulterant, it will settle down.
  4. Coffee Powder:
    Sprinkle a few pinches of Coffee powder in a glass of water. Coffee powder floats. If it is adulterated with Tamarind powder, it settles down.
  5. Food Grains:
    Foodgrains are mixed with stones, sand grit, marble, etc. They are removed by Sorting, handpicking, and washing.

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