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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 11th English Solutions Prose Chapter 3 Forgetting
How forgetful are you?
We are all forgetful at times and would like to find ways of improving our memories.
A. How sharp is your memory?
Take this five-minute memory test. The teacher will read out a series of 30 words, one by one. Some of them will be repeated. Whenever you hear a word for the first time, write ‘N’ (for New) in the corresponding box and when you hear a repeated word write ‘R’ After completing this task, check your results. Compare it with your friends and see where you stand.
A set of 30 words is provided here. You can ask your teacher or a friend to read out the words. Hear carefully and do this activity yourself.
B. Have you ever lost or misplaced anything of value due to forget fulness?
Yes, I have misplaced my hall ticket. I was tensed. My Headmaster asked me not to panic. He identified me to the hall supervisor and allowed me to write my examination in Std X.
At times, instances of forgetfulness may land us in a tight spot or in a difficult situation. Therefore, we need to find ways to remember what we have to do or carry with us. One way is to make a mental check-list that we can verify before starting any activity.
Now discuss with your partner and think of some practical ideas to overcome forgetfulness, in your day-to-day activities.
|e.g. setting an alarm|
|e.g. setting an alarm||Keeping a diary|
|Checklist||Write on calendar|
|Sticky notes||PDA – Personal Digital Assistant|
C. Discuss and share your views with the class on the following. Is forgetfulness a result of carelessness or preoccupation?
Team A : We think it is a result of carelessness. If we really attach great importance to details, we will never forget.
Team B : Perhaps, things you are interested in, you don’t tend to forget.
Team C : We think forgetting is mostly by preoccupation with something. Brain can do , multi-tasking but not always. If your mind is focussed on a serious problem and ways of solving it, the brain shuts down all other memory files for a while. It is purely a temporary issue.
Team A&B : Yes, we agree;with team‘C’.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th English Forgetting Textual Questions
1. Based on your understanding of the essay, answer the following questions in one or two sentences each.
What does lynd actually wonder at?
Lynd actually wonders at the efficiency of human memory which remembers many things.
Name a few things that a person remembers easily.
A man easily remembers all the items of clothing, shutting the door before leaving the home, turning off lights before going upstairs, etc,
How do psychologists interpret forgetfulness?
Psychologists tell us that people forget things because they wish to forget them.
What is the commonest type of forgetfulness, according to Lynd?
Commonest type of forgetfulness occurs in the matters of posting letters. The author himself has forgotten to post his own letters many times.
What does the author mean when he says the letter in his pocket leads an unadventurous life?
The letter in his pocket leads an unadventurous life as it is kept safe inside his pocket for a long time without him remembering about it.
What are the articles the writer forgets most often?
The poet often forgets his books and walking sticks.
Who are the citizens of ‘dreamland’? Why?
Sportsmen are the citizens of dreamland because even after returning from their games their mind is still filled with the imagination of playing.
What is common about the ‘angler’ and the ‘poet’?
The angler enjoys his sport of fishing so intensely that he forgets his fishing rod. Likewise, the poet, who often roams in his own world of imagination, may forget to post a letter. Both the angler’s and the poet’s loss of memory is a tribute to the intensity of their enjoyment.
2. Based on your reading, answer the following questions in two to four sentences each,
What made people wonder about the absentmindedness of their fellow-beings?
The people wondered about the list of articles published for sale which were lost by railway travellers.
What are our memories filled with?
Our memories are filled with names of cricketers, footballers, murderers,. actors and actresses. Our memories are filled with many routine activities.
When does human memory work with less than its usual capacity?
Human memory works with less than its usual capacity when we forget things as we wish to forget them and when we have antipathy towards something.
Why, according to Lynd, should taking medicines be one of the easiest actions to remember?
Taking medicines should be one of the easiest actions to remember because doctor has prescribed the medicine to recover from illness. Besides, there is a need to take it either before or after meals. Everytime one takes meals, one should easily remember medicine.
How,do the chemists make fortunes out of the medicines people forget to take? Similar to the author, many remember to forget medicine as soon as the appointed time arrives.
The medicine which is kept for long without swallowing may soon become expiry and cannot be used anymore. Tims chemists make fortunes out of the medicines people forget to take.
The list of articles lost in trains suggest that sportsmen have worse memories than their ordinary serious-minded fellows. Why does Lynd say this?
Considerable number of footballs and cricket bats were forgotten by young sportsmen. Serious – minded ordinary citizens forget less. The author Lynd infers that the sportsmen’s forgetfulness is justified as their minds are full of vision of the playing field. Their heads are in the stars and among the clouds. Keeping their hearts in boots, young sportsmen rush home to talk about their exploits and are naturally more absent-minded than serious- minded ordinary folks.
What kind of absent-mindedness is regarded as a virtue by Lynd?
The poet forgetting to post a letter is regarded as a virtue by Lynd because this absent-minded as his mind is filled with glorious matter.
Narrate the plight of the baby on its day out.
A father offered to take the baby out in a perambulator. On a sunny morning, he was tempted to have a glass of beer. He entered a pub leaving the perambulator in the street opposite to the pub. A little later, his wife found the baby asleep in the perambulator. Her husband was not found anywhere. She took the perambulator home anticipating her husband’s remorse over the stolen baby. But to her obvious dismay, he walked in cheerfully and asked her what was the lunch. He had completely forgotten the baby on its day out.
3. Answer the following in a paragraph of about 100-150 words each.
You have borrowed a branded cricket bat from your reluctant friend for an outstation match. After returning home you realize you have absent-mindedly left it in the hotel room. Write a letter of apology and regret to your friend.
12, Dhandapani Street,
Dear Madhan / Seema,
I’m. fine. I hope this letter finds you in the best of your health. I’m penning this letter to express my profound sorrow for forgetting to bring your branded cricket bat. I have left it behind in the hotel room in Mumbai. I’m terribly sorry. I was late for the train to Chennai. As I rushed to the station, I just forgot the packed bat. I rang up the hotel. I am told that the bat is safe. Next week, my cousin is coming home. I have asked him to bring it from the hotel. Kindly bear with me. Please do forgive my mistake. I shall certainly return your bat in a fortnight.
With deep regrets
Yours loving friend
Arun / Vanitha
17, Valluvar St,
Kahlil Gibran states ‘Forgetfulness is a form of freedom.’ Write an article for your school magazine, linking your ideas logically and giving appropriate examples.
“Forgetfulness is a form of freedom”. To a greater extent, this statement is true. Forgetting is the apparent loss of information already encoded and stored in an individual’s long-term memory. It is a gradual process in which old memories are unable to be recalled from memory storage.
There is no use crowding all activities in our minds forever. This may naturally lead to many health hazards. On the other hand, a person with forgetfulness leads a peaceful life because he lives for the present moment without any botheration about the past. Scientists, poets, philosophers, and creative people are most notorious for their absent-minded ways.
Several anecdotes revolve around Albert Einstein and Sir Isaac Newton due to their scattered, forgetful ways. Einstein once called the university he worked at to ask for his own address as he had forgotten it. Persian Poet Sumi says, “Mindlessness help you unite with the divine.” So there is nothing wrong with being forgetful. Far from being is negative, it is a desirable state that not everyone can aspire to.
Will you sympathise or ridicule someone who is intensely forgetful? Write an essay justifying your point of view.
Forgetfulness, if deemed a form of freedom, must be welcome. But what one forgets matters. Similar to the father who forgot the baby in the perambulator if one forgets main duties, he would become an anathema to even family members. I wouldn’t be hasty to ridicule a person who “suffers” from acute or intense forgetfulness. I would observe, in the first place, what are the items he forgets routinely. Are they trifles or serious things? If a married man forgets his wife and children and forgets his filial duties, then he deserves chastisement and not ridicule.
If forgetting leads to comic situations like wearing chappals in the wrong foot, or wearing the tie in a funny manner, sometimes a person of extraordinary intelligence may forget his residential address similar to Einstein. Scientists and great philosophers like Socrates and Rabindranath Tagore suddenly went into spells of deep contemplation totally forgetting where they were heading to. Once it so happened that socrates went into a trance on a road. His disciples and friends stood around him the whole day. Night came. Friends bought mats and pillows and slept around him hoping to listen to his words of wisdom as soon as the spell breaks and remembers what he saw in his world of imagination.
Towards dawn, the spell broke. Socrates saw the people sleeping around him. He just carefully walked back home. I have my heart-felt sympathies for my friends who study just before examination and forget what they learnt in the examination hall. I’ve my conviction that those who forget naturally need to be treated with a sympathetic understanding because they really don’t know that they forget. Those who suffer from selective amnesia, I mean politicians who give tall promises before elections but remember to forget them soon after winning the elections need to be ridiculed by funny cartoons and in public places because they have done a breach of trust.
“There is some pleasure even in words, when they bring forgetfulness of present miseries.”
A Give answers to the following question in 100-150 word each.
Why is Robert Lynd amazed at the efficiency of humans to remember things?
Robert Lynd is amazed by the efficiency of human memory. Modem man remembers telephone numbers, names of film stars, cricketers, football champions and even notorious murderers. He remarks with jest that man does not forget a single item of his clothing. No one forgets to shut the door when leaving the house. The institution of family survives in modem cities because ordinary people have efficient memory power. In the ordinary life, man remembers almost everything he is expected to remember like birthdays and Valentine’s day. He remembers appointments for dinner and lunch. He remembers what the weather was in a . long-part August. Not even one in thousand forgets, simple things like switching off lights before going upstairs or a single item of dressing. Almost everybody remembers to do the right things of the right moment till it is time to go to bed.
What according to Robert Lynd are the causes for forgetting?
In some matters, the memory is less than perfect, causes could be psychological. We tend to forget things we don’t wish to remember. For example, many people forget to take medicines. Medicine needs to be taken before / after meals. Robert Lynd remarks that chemists make a lot of money because people tend to forget to take medicines. It aggravates the disease and people are forced to buy more and more medicines. It may be due to their antipathy to pills and poisons that many people fail to remember them at the appointed hours. The author is quizzed at the fact as to how a life-long devotee of medicines like himself is forgetful of them as those who take them up unwillingly. He admits that even if he has the pills in his pockets as soon as the time of consumption arrives, he forgets it.
Describe the circumstances leading to the vexation of the mother on the baby’s day out.
Once a father took his baby out in a perambulator in the morning. He walked into a pub to have a glass of beer. The child was sitting in the perambulator outside in the street. After sometime his wife came that way for shopping. She was shocked to find her baby sleeping in the perambulator. She decided to teach him a lesson. She took the’baby home. She expected her husband to come and apologize for losing the child. But he just walked in and casually asked his wife cheerfully what was there for lunch. Very few people like Einstein or Socrates would be capable of such absent-mindedness.
What are the observations of Robert Lynd on the capacity of humans to remember and forget things?
Robert Lynd is amazed by the efficiency of human memory. Modem man remembers telephone numbers, names of film stars, cricketers, football champions and even notorious murderers. He remarks wittily that man does not forget a single item of his clothing. No one forgets to shut the door when leaving the house. The institution of family survives in modem cities because ordinary people have extraordinary memory power. In some matters, the memory is less than perfect, causes could be psychological. We tend to forget things we don’t wish to remember. For example, many people forget to take medicines.
Medicine needs to be taken before / after meals. Robert Lynd remarks that chemists make a lot of money because people tend to forget to take medicines. It aggravates ithe disease and people are forced to buy more and more medicines. Most people forget to post letters. The author himself would not trust his letters to be posted by others. The author himself never remembered to post letters entrusted to him. He had to apologise for the unposted letters kept with him for long. Likewise, the author forgets his walking sticks often.
How does the author prove that absent-mindedness is a boon as well as a bane?
Absent – mindedness of people shocked the author when the Railway department published the list of lost articles. It was startling to note that young people forget bats, balls etc. The author attributes it to the abundant imagination and dreams. They are citizens of dreamland. Anglers also forget their fishing rods. Absent – mindedness is often a blessing in disguise. People can forget their unhappiness and live in a world of Utopia. Great thinkers, poets and philosophers are absent – minded because their minds are full of lofty ideas and imagination. Socrates the philosopher and S.T. Coleridge the poet were absent – minded people. Similarly, Politicians have bad memories. States are yet to produce ideal statesmen. Great writers, composers of music have amazingly great memories.
Memory is half the substance of their art. Once a father took his baby out in a perambulator in the morning. He walked into a pub to have a glass of beer. The child was sitting in the perambulator outside in the street. After sometime, his wife came that way for shopping. She was shocked to find her baby sleeping in the perambulator. She decided to teach her husband a lesson. She took the baby home. She expected her husband to come and apologize for losing the child. But he just walked in and casually asked his wife cheerfully what was there for lunch. Very few people like Einstein or Socrates would be capable of such absent-mindedness. Men should forget unpleasant things and remember pleasant things. Thus Absent – mindedness is both a boon and a bane.
A. Homonyms and Heteronyms.
Complete the sentences by choosing a suitable word from those given in the brackets.
- Nobody can say (1) _______ there will be an improvement in the (2) _______ (whether / weather)
- Your ring is (1) _______ Do not (2) _______ it.(loose / lose) .
- We found a (1) _______ of biscuits in the old man’s shirt (2) _______ (pocket /packet)
- When the pole vaulter cleared 28. (1) _______ it was declared a record (2) _______ (feet/feat)
- Explain the (1) _______ ‘Cut your (2) _______ according to your cloth.’ (coat / quote)
- The’stranger (1) _______ for a few minutes before he (2) _______ . my house.(paused /passed)
- The (1) _______ dancer turned (2) _______ after the final performance, (weary /wiry)
- The chain that I presented to my sister was not made of gold; it was just (1) _______ Iam suffering from a sense of (2) _______ (guilt / gilt)
- whether, weather
- loose, lose
- packet, pocket
- feet, feat
- quote, coat
- paused, passed
- wiry, weary
- gilt, guilt
Form meaningful sentences using the given words to bring out at least two different meanings.
- train – You must train yourself to catch the train in time.
- tear – The tear in the uniform brought tears in the eyes of the student.
- wind – It is time to wind up the programme because it is very windy and it might rain soon.
- light – As the bag was very light, the boy was able carry it though there was no light in his street.
- file – She filed all the documents carefully in a file.
- bear – The bear couldn’t bear the mischief of the visitor; he took him into the cage and mauled him very badly.
B. Clipped Words
Now, write the clipped and unclipped form of the given words and complete the table.
|ceiling fan or fanatic||fan|
C. Refer to a dictionary and match the professions with their relevant job descriptions
|1.||pathologist||studies languages and their structure|
|2.||ornithologist||studies atmosphere, weather and climate|
|3.||entomologist||studies the matter that constitutes the Earth|
|5.||sociologist||studies reptiles and amphibians|
|6.||geologist||studies functioning of human society|
|7.||linguist||studies artefacts and. physical remains|
- studies diseases
- studies birds
- studies insects
- studies artefacts and physical remains
- studies functioning of human society
- studies the matter that constitutes the Earth
- studies languages and their structure
- studies earthquakes
- studies reptiles and amphibians
- studies atmosphere, weather and climate
D. Fill in the blanks choosing the words from the box. Refer to a dictionary if required. One has been done for you.
(thespian, sadist, polyglot, ambidextrous, philanthropist, misanthrope, bibliophile, nonagenarian, teetotaller, globetrotter, optimist)
(i) Peter always refuses alcohol, when it is offered to him at parties and takes a soft drink instead. He says he always has and always will abstain from alcohol and it is a matter of principle for him. We can call Peter a ________
(ii) Aruna always looks at the bright side of things. Even in the face of misfortune, she firmly believes that everything will workout for the best in the end. What can we call Aruna? ________
(iii) The rich industrialist donated a huge sum of money to set up a public library in his native village. He is a ________ and a social reformer.
(iv) The Chair person of our company keeps travelling all over the world to attend conferences and we call her a ________
(v) Antony has the amazing ability to use both his hands, equally well. He can write, draw and perform various other tasks with equal speed and efficiency with his left as well as his right hand. Antony is ________
(vi) Due to some disturbing incidents in her childhood, Neetu grew into a reclusive adult. She tends to keep aloof and avoids all kinds of social activities. Neetu is a ________
(vii) Tharini serves as an interpreter at meetings between statesmen from different countries. She is also a much sought-after tour guide, as she is well-versed and fluent in multiple languages. Tharini is a ________
(viii) My grandparents are in their nineties. I am glad that this ________ couple are active, cheerful and in good health.
(ix) Richard Burton was a gifted theatre artist. He donned several roles with ease and is especially famous for the Shakespearean parts he played on stage. Mr. Burton is a born ________
(x) The Chairman of this concern seems to derive pleasure from inflicting pain on others. He humiliates and hurts his subordinates for no reason. He is a real ________
(i) tee totaller
E. Find the antonyms of the following words in the puzzle and shade them with a pencil. The first one has been done for you.
- fact Spot the word
A. First, read the incomplete sentences given below. Listen to two interesting anecdotes about two scientists that your teacher will read aloud or play on the recorder. Then, based on your understanding, complete the sentences suitably.
(For listening to the passage refer to our website www.fullcircleeducation.in) Thomas Alva Edison stepped from a train in Orange, New Jersey and walked down the platform. The station master knew how forgetful the famous inventor was. Therefore, he would always ask him a customary question. He asked Edison if he had left anything behind. Edison confidently replied that he had not left anything and everything was safe with him. Then, he began taking a count of his suitcases. As he was doing so, he happened to look up at the train. With a start, he dropped his bags and raced back to the car in which he had been travelling. What prompted that burst of activity was the face of his bride, with whom he had just married and returned from a honeymoon trip, staring from a window.
Albert Einstein was working at the Princeton University. One day when he was going back home he forgot his home address. The driver of the cab aid not recognize him. Einstein asked the driver if he knew Einstein’s home. The driver exclaimed that there could be no one who did not know Einstein’s address. He added that everyone in Princeton knew where Einstein lived and asked him if he wanted to meet Einstein. Einstein with a sheepish grin replied that he was Einstein and he had forgotten his residential address. He requested the cabbie if he could take him there. The astonished driver drove him home and dropped him safely. The cabbie considered driving Einstein a great honour and refused to charge him for the service.
- Edison travelled to New Jersey by ______
- The station master enquired if Edison ______
- Edison raced back to the car, when he saw ______
- Albert Einstein was working in ______
- One day, when he was going back home, he ______
- Einstein asked the cab driver if he knew ______
- The driver was so good that he ______
- a train
- had left anything behind
- the face of his bride
- Princeton university
- forgot his residential address
- Einstein’s residence
- refused to charge him for his
Work with a partner and take turns to share your views and suggestions with the class.
You are travelling in a train. When the Train Ticket Examiner enters your compartment, much to your shock, you realize you have forgotten to bring your train ticket. How will you handle the situation?
TTE : Please show me your ticket.
Ragu : Oh! sorry! I left my printed ticket on my table.
TTE : Well, this is a reserved compartment, Don’t you know?
Ragu : Sir, I have reserved my ticket. It is 28 UB, S7 in Pandiyan Express.
TTE : Well, what you say might be true. But I want the ticket.
Ragu : Sir, could you please give me five minutes.
TTE : Why?
Ragu : I will ask my sister to scan the ticket and send it to my phone by WhatsApp.
TTE : Okay. But get it in five minutes.
Ragu : Thank you so much sir.
You forget to wish your best friend on his/her birthday. He gets very angry. How will you try to pacify him/her? Construct a dialogue of about 4 to 5 exchanges and enact a role play.
Ramesh : Ravi, aren’t you my best friend?
Ravi : Why do you doubt it?
Ramesh : You didn’t even wish me. Yesterday evening I was waiting for you till 9 pm. Ravi : I’m terribly sorry! I was at the Chepauk stadium watching CSK batting under trying conditions.
Ramesh : Oh! when it comes to cricket, you forget even your weekly tests.
Ravi : Friend, forgive me. Accept my belated wishes.
Ramesh : Okay. Let us forget it and talk about the match.
‘Forgetfulness is the beginning of happiness’ Do you agree or disagree? Discuss in class.
In “Ode to skylark,” Shelly beautifully portrays the human beings’ boundless capacity to worry about dead yesterday, unborn tomorrow and spoil the happiness of a perfectly beautiful present. He says, “We look before and after and pine for what is not. Our sincerest laughter with some pain is fraught”. Human mind has a soft comer for harbouring hurts and pain. It replays them like a broken record often and sustains hostility between individuals. It requires a mature mind to forgive and forget. The road to recovery of any invisible hurt starts the moment one forgives the person and casually forgets all unpleasant memories connected to it. Human mind, according to Robert Lynd, forgets what it chooses to forget. We are in a civilized society because everyone remembers to dress properly and remember the names of friends and relatives. If one develops the attitude to remember only pleasant things, the mind will train itself to forget insignificant bad memories. Thus forgetting is the beginning of real happiness.
Is there a link between intelligence and absent-mindedness? Share your views on this subject.
Of course yes, the person who is smart and extremely intelligent focusses his entire being on an issue or an invention. Thus all other things are abstracted. Great genius like Einstein and philosophers like Tagore tend to forget mundane affairs. Their minds are always preoccupied with lofty ideas and the ills of the society. So, it is believed that eccentricity like absent mindedness is common among very intelligent people. The best example is Einstiein. He sat in the railway coach leaving behind his newly married bride in the car. Only on seeing her furious face, he realized the fact that he forgot to take her along into the railway coach.
Now, read the following biographical extract on Sujatha Rangarajan, a Science-fiction writer, and answer the questions that follow.
1. Sujatha is the allonym of the Tamil author S. Rangarajan and it is this name that is recognised at Once by the Tamil Sci-Fi reading community. You might have heard of Chitti and his extraordinary exhibition of different qualities in an incredible manner. The robot could excel a human being in any act beyond one’s imagination. Jeeno, a robotic dog which appeared in Sujatha’s science fiction novel “En Iniya Iyandhira” (My Dear Robot) formed the basis of Chitti’s character. Like Chitti, Jeeno was an all-rounder who could cook, clean and fight.
Very high tech computer technology terms are used in the story. Jeeno, a pet robot, plays an important role throughout the story. As the story proceeds, it behaves and starts to think on its own like-a human and instructs Nila, a human being, on how to carry on further.
2. In the preface of ‘En Iniya Iyandhira’,the writer states the reason for his attraction to the genre: “Science gives us the wonderful freedom to analyse thousands and thousands of alternative possibilities. While using it, and while playing with its new games, a writer needs to be cautious only about one thing. The story should draw some parallels or association from the emotions and desires of the present humankind. Only then it becomes interesting. Jeeno, the robot dog, was intelligent.
But the character became popular only because of the robot’s frequently displayed human tendencies. It is no wonder that his works echo these words about him and will reflect in the minds of the readers who enjoy reading his novels to have a lifetime experience.
3. It was Sujatha, who set the trend in sci-fi stories. He had tracked the origin from Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein to his short stories. He has written 50 sci-fi short stories published in various Tamil magazines.
His stories have inspired many readers to extend their reading to English sci-fi writers like Isaac Asimov. The themes were bold even if there was a dependence on very well – established characterisation of English fiction. Sujatha opened up a new world to us with his writings on holograms, computers and works like ‘En Iniya Iyanthira’, inspire many to study computer science.
4. He has been a great writer for more than four decades. He combined reasoning and science in his writings. Being a multifaceted hi-fi and sci-fi humanistic author, he expressed his views distinctively. He was the one who took Tamil novels to the next level. As an MIT alumnus and an engineer at BHEL, he was very good at technology. So, he narrated sci-fi stories, impressively. His readers always enjoyed reading all his detective and sci-fi novels which featured the most famous duo Ganesh and Vasanth.
5. Sujatha has played a crucial role as a playwright for various Tamil movies which have fascinated movie lovers. Hence, it is fathomable that the writer’s perspective of future India enthuses every reader and paves a new way to reading sci-fi stories in English.
A. Answer the following questions in a sentence or two.
How was Jeeno different from other robots?
Other robots did tasks only as per the commands issued. But Jeeno frequently displayed human tendencies. It behaved and thought like a human being.
What precaution should one take while writing Science fiction stories?
The writer should ensure that the story draws some parallel or association from emotions and desires of the present humankind. Only then the science-fiction would be interesting.
What inspired Sujatha’s themes?
Sujatha had bold trend in sci-fi stories. He had tracked the origin from Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein to his short stories. He opened up a new world to the readers with his writings on holograms, computers, robots who feel and behave like humans, (e.g) “En Iniya Iyanthira”. In short, Sujatha’s themes were inspired by reasoning, science, technology, computers and humanoids.
Why were Sujatha’s sci-fi stories impressive?
Sujatha’s sci-fi stories have really inspired Tamil readers to move on to read Isaac Asimov. He combined reasoning with science in his writings. Being a multi-faceted hi-fi and sci-fi humanistic author, he expressed his views distinctly. Being an alumni of MIT, he was good at technology. Thus his sci-fi stories were always impressive with interesting characters like Chitti, the robot; Jeeno the robot-dog and detective duo Ganesh and Vasanth.
B. Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following.
- difficult to believe (para 1) incredible
- a style or category of art, music or literature (para 2) genre
- having many sides (para 4) multifaceted
- capable of being understood (para 5) fathomable
A. Identify the changes in these pairs of active and passive constructions.
The pilot flew the airplane to Bengaluru.
The airplane was flown to Bengaluru by the pilot. In the second sentence, the object has been shifted to the place of subject. It remains passive and allows the work to be done by the noun.
The bananas were eaten by the monkey.
The monkey ate the bananas. Here the subject is shifted to the place of object.
B. Change the voice of the following sentences.
Mohammed follows the rules.
The rules are followed by Mohammed.
Mohan has completed the course.
The course has been completed by Mohan.
Magdalene is singing the prayer.
The prayer is being sung by Magdelene.
Who wrote this complaint?
By whom was this complaint written?
May God bless you with happiness!
May you be blessed with happiness by God.
A house is being constructed by them.
They are constructing a house.
Let the door not be slammed.
Don’t slam the door.
The team was trained by the coach.
The coach trained the team.
C. Make sentences using the passive forms of the verbs.
Tagore was awarded Nobel prize.
IIM Ahmedabad / establish /1961
IIM Ahmedabad was established in 1961.
Chhattisgarh/ form / 2000
Chhattisgarh was formed in 2000.
First passenger train /inaugurated /India /1853
The first passenger train was inaugurated in 1853.
Indian Airlines /set up /1953 ! Indian Airlines was set up in 1953.
D. Look at the newspaper items given below. Use the information in the headlines to complete the sentence.
HEAVY RAINS LASH CHENNAI
______ threw normal life out of gear.
Heavy rains threw normal life out of gear.
NEET CLASSES TO BEGIN ON SEPT. 20th
The Centre co-ordinator informed the candidates ______ Sept. 20th
The centre coordinator informed the candidates about the commencement of NEET classes on September 20th.
12 INJURED AS BUSES COLLIDE
About at the Dindigul bus terminus here today.
About 12 passengers were injured as buses collided at Dindigul.
E. Expand the following news headlines in a sentence.
MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS IN DECEMBER
Municipal Elections will be held in December.
TELEPHONE CUSTOMERS TO GET VIDEO PHONE BSNL
proposes to give video phone to its customers at a low cost.
CARD LICENSE TO REPLACE PAPER DRIVING LICENSE
Transport Minister announced that paper licenses will be replaced with card licenses.
ATM WITHOUT SECURITY GUARD TO CLOSE RBI
announced that all ATMS which have no security guard will be closed.
F. Describing a process
1. Complete the passage by filling the blanks with the passive forms of the verbs.
The water should be boiled in a vessel. Then tea leaves and milk (1) _____ to the water. The vessel (2) _____ with a lid. The tea (3) _____ and (4) _____ into the tups. Sugar (5) _____ . and (6) _____ The tea (7) _____ hot.
- should be added
- must be covered
- should be filtered
- should be added
- should be served
2. Here is a recipe to make chocolate cake in a pressure cooker. Rewrite the instructions in passive voice. The first one has been done for you.
First sift the flour, cocoa powder and baking powder in a mixing bowl.
The flour, cocoa powder and baking powder are first sifted in a mixing bowl.
Add butter, sugar, salt, water and vanilla and beat the ingredients using a whisk.
Butter, sugar, salt, water, and vanilla should be added and the ingredients must be beaten using a whisk. .
Add the eggs and beat the batter until it is smooth.
The eggs must be added and the batter must be beaten until it is smooth.
Transfer the batter into the baking tin.
The batter must be transferred into the baking tin.
Heat the pressure cooker, covered with the lid but without the pressure, for 3-4 minutes on high heat. Then place the cake tin in the empty cooker (Do not add water in the cooker).
The pressure cooker must be heated. It should be covered with the lid but without the pressure. It must be left for 3-4 minutes on high heat. The cake tin must be kept in the empty cooker. (Let not water be added in the cooker)
Close the lid (without the pressure), lower the flame and let it cook for about 30 minutes.
Let the lid be closed without the pressure. The flame must be lowered and it must be let to cook for about thirty minutes.
3. Write the process of wrapping a Christmas gift in a paragraph in passive form, with the help of the pictures given below.
- The gift must be placed in a rectangular box.
- The required paper must be measured. The gift paper must be placed on the box. It must be wrapped loose end up and over and a cut must be made.
- The gift paper must be placed face down and centred on the box. The first edge must be brought up and taped in place on to box. Then it must be brought other side up and taped in place.
- The sides should be folded in against the edges of the box. The diagonal flaps you have created must be creased.
- The top edge should be folded down. Then bottom edge should be folded up and taped.
- A gift tag must be added with a bow and ribbon to really class up your Christmas gift and impress recipients of your gift.
Subject and Verb Agreement (Concord)
A. Underline the correct verb in these sentences.
- The girl and her sisters _______ (watch, watches) television every day.
- Ravi _______ (doesn’t, don’t) like sports.
- My classmates _______ (study, studies) before a test.
- One of the cookies _______ (is, are) missing.
- A lady with ten cats _______ (live, lives) in that big house.
- Measles _______ (is, are) very serious.
- The committee _______ (decide, decides) when to adjourn.
- Our team _______ (is, are) the best.
- Everybody _______ (enjoy, enjoys) a good song.
- Either of these _______ (is, are) suitable.
B. Correct the following passage.
Where does the deer and the antelope play? One place is Yellowstone National Park. It were created in 1872. Parts of the park is in Wyoming, Montana and Idaho. The park are a safe place for many animals. Bears, moose, buffalo, deer and antelope lives there. Beavers, otters, fish and eagles also enjoys the park. For them, Yellowstone be ‘home sweet home.’
Where do the deer and the antelope play? One place is Yellowstone National Park. It was created in 1872. Parts of the park are in Wyoming, Montana and Idaho. The park is a safe place for many animals. Bears, moose, buffalo, deer and antelope live there. Beavers, otters, fish and eagles also enjoy the park. For them, Yellowstone is ‘Home, sweet home.’
A biographical sketch is a brief summary of a person’s life and his achievements. It should include a description of the person’s physical appearance, education, work, achievements and other salient personal traits. The main focus of a biographical sketch is to portray the person in an admirable way.
(a) Given below are hints about a renowned British science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke. Write a biographical sketch on the author in not more than 80-100 words based on the information given below.
|Name||Arthur C. Clarke|
|Pen names||Charles Willis, E.G.O’Brien|
|Birth||16 Dec 1917, England|
|Career||Novelist, Television host, inventor and film screen writer.|
|Genre||Science Fiction, Television series, film screen play|
|Awards and Honours||1961, Kalinga Prize – an award given by UNESCO for
Hugo and Nebula Awards
Chairman of the Interplanetary Society
Highest Civil Honour of Sri Lanka – ‘Sri Lankabhimanya 2005’
|Titles||Clarke, Robert Heinlein and Isaac Asimov – ‘Big Three’ of Science Fiction
‘The Prophet of the Space Age’
|Famous Works||Childhood’s End 2001: A Space Odyssey Rendezvous with Rana|
Arthur C. Clark was bom on 16th December, 1917 in England. He was a novelist, television host, inventor and film screen writer all bundled into one. He gained popularity in science fiction, sensational T.V serials and screen play writing. In recognition of his exceptional skills, he was awarded Kalinga prize for popularising science. This award was given to him by UNESCO in 1961..He was made the chairman of Interplanetary Society and also conferred Hugo and Nebula awards, He was given the highest civilian (award) honour of Sri Lanka ‘Sir Lankabhimanya in 2005’. Clarke is often regarded as one of the triumvirs of sci-fi writers, (i.e) Robert Heinlein, Asimov and himself. He is hailed as “The Prophet of Space Age”. He is widely remembered world over for his famous work “Childhood End”, “2001: A space Odysey”: and “Rendezvous with Rana”.
You have recently attended a seminar on ‘Science and Literature’ in which writers presented papers on Science Fiction and literature and focused on the creativity of young writers. Write a short report about it for a leading newspaper in about 100-120 words.
The seminar on “Science and Literature” was held at American college, Madurai. It was organized in memory of Prof. Vasanth. Students from various colleges, Government Higher Secondary Schools and Matriculation schools were present. Dr. Paul Luv inaugurated the seminar. Students from Manjakkuppam Higher Secondary School talked about novels of Jules Verne-(i.e) Journey to the center of the earth, Twenty thousand leagues under the sea, From earth to the moon, Around the world in eighty days, Five weeks in a balloon, Off on a comet, An Antartic mystery has prophesied man’s potential ability to carryout space travel, explore.
Antarctica, do deep water Research, mission to moon and other celestial bodies. It is mind-boggling to realize that he wrote about these latest developments before 1905. Students were ‘ much impressed by the prolific sci-fi writings of the French novelist more than a century ago.
Prof. Sangeetha spoke on Aldous Huxley’s brave new world which predicted Human genome project and how science can help produce babies with special attributes, size, colour and ’ character traits. All of us, know the cloning of ‘Dolly’. Student from Government Hr. Sec. School D. Kala spoke about Alvin Toffler and how he had predicted revolution due to technological break through in his most famous books. “Future shock”, “The third wave” and “power shift”. He discusses modem technologies including the digital revolution, and the communication revolution. Malathy talked about Sujatha, Tamil Sci-fi writer who influenced large number of children and adults to fall in love with computers and robotics. His imaginary characters Chitti and Jeeno I have endeared him to the masses.
Asimov has written large number of Sci-fi stories in collaboration with Robert A. Heinlein and Arthur C. Clarke. Asimov’s most famous work is the “Foundation series” and Galactic empire”. Asimov has written Lucky start series of Juvenile science-fiction using the pen name Paul French. The seminar ended with the note that many sci-fi writers have greatly contributed to the giant strides science and Technology has made in recent times. Students must read and write sci-fi fiction to influence the development of love for science.
You are the School Pupil Leader. Your school organised an Inter-School Sports event at Nehru Stadium. Write a report on the special events conducted in 100-120 words for the school souvenir.
Hon Balakrishna Reddy, the minister for sports inaugurated the sports meet in the presence of state project officer RMSA Dr. V.C. Rameswara Murugan. Mr. Peter the physical director from Salem coordinated all the events. In the track and field events, Meena and Tamilselvi from Ashok Nagar Girl’s School bagged gold and silver medals. In the men’s event, Kandan
Subbu from Government Boys High School, Nungambakkam bagged Gold and Silver medals. Third position was bagged by Presidency School girl Suba. In boy’s event, Ambedkar School Sukumar bagged a silver medal.
Maheswari of Girl’s School, Guduvancherry won the gold in weightlifting. It was heartening to note many Government School students playing tough against even private schools which give special coaching in sports and games. Chandran, the Chief Inspector of Physical Education gave away the prizes to all the winners of various sports and games events.
Forgetting About the Author
Robert Lynd is an Anglo-Irish writer, essayist and a poet. He is respected as one of the greatest essayists of the 20th century. He wrote many articles for leading journals and newspapers like Daily News, the New Statesman and Nation. He wrote under the pseudonym name “Y.Y His essays dealt with interesting and simple topics. His essays arc humourous delightful, ironical and satirical. I le was awarded with an honorary literary Doctorate by Queen’s University. He was confessed silver medal by the Royal Society of Literature.
Robert Lynd is a humorous and delightful essayist. His essays are simple, playful and satirical. His style of writing is elegant and charming. In his essay “Forgetting”, he writes about the root causes of forgetting and also explains what items are usually forgotten by people.
Robert Lynd is amazed by the efficiency of human memory. Modem man remembers telephone numbers, names of film stars, cricketers, football champions and even notorious murderers. He remarks wittily that man does not forget a single item of his clothing; No one forgets to shut the door when leaving the house. The institution of family survives in modem cities because ordinary people have extraordinary memory power. In some matters the memory is less than perfect, causes could be psychological. We tend to forget things we don’t wish to remember.
For example, many people forget to take medicines. Medicine needs to be taken before / after meals. Robert Lynd remarks that chemists make a lot of money because people tend to forget to take medicines. It aggravates the disease and people are forced to buy more and more medicines. Most people forget to post letters. The author himself would not trust his letters to be posted by others. The author himself never remembered to post letters entrusted to him. He had to apologise for the unposted letters kept with him for long. Likewise, the author forgets his walking sticks often.
The Absent-mindedness of people shocked the author when the Railway department published the list of lost articles. It was startling to note that young people forget bats, balls etc. The author attributes it to the abundant imagination and dreams. They are citizens of dreamland. Anglers also forget their fishing rods. Absent-mindedness is often a blessing in disguise. People can forget their unhappiness and live in a world of Utopia. Great thinkers, poets and philosophers are absent-minded because their minds are full of lofty ideas and imagination.
Socrates the philosopher and S.T. Coleridge the poet were absent-minded people. Similarly, Politicians have bad memories. States are yet to produce ideal Statesmen. Great writers, composers of music have amazingly great memories . Memory is half the substance of their art. Once a father took his baby out in a perambulator in the morning. He walked into a pub to have a glass of beer. The child was sitting in the perambulator outside in the street. After sometime, his wife came that way for shopping. She was shocked to find her baby sleeping in the perambulator.
She decided to teach her husband a lesson. She took the baby home. She expected her husband to come and apologize for losing the child. but he just walked in and casually asked his wife cheerfully what was there for the lunch. Very few people like Einstein or Socrates would be capable of such absent-mindedness. Men should forget unpleasant things and remember pleasant things.
- abstracted – lacking concentration on what is
- happening around
- antipathy – strong dislike
- audacious – bold and daring
- delinquent – a young person who is regularly
- involved in wrongdoing
- eccentric – tending to act strangely
- exploits – daring or heroic acts or actions, feats
- fallible – capable of making mistakes
- fortunes – huge sums of money
- indignant – being very angry.
- mediocre – not very good, ordinary
- prosaic – dull
- quivering – trembling, shivering
- reluctant -unwilling
- sieve – strainer or filter
- vexation – irritation, annoyance
- vintage – wine of high quality produced in a particular year
- Antipathy – dislike
- Magnificent – spectacular
- Prosaic – dull
Choose the most appropriate synonym for the underlined word. (Exam model)
The ordinary man seldom forgets things.
A very methodical man remembers to take medicine.
I am always reluctant to trust a visitor to post my letters.
It is because of their antipathy to pills.
Chemists make their fortunes out of medicines people forget to take.
A long chain of circumstances leads to a number of embarrassing questions.
I am no delinquent in such matters.
I dare not carry an umbrella because I forget it often.
He did not even have the grimmest jawed umbrella.
An absent-minded angler is good at inventing magnificent lies.
One has no time to remember the mediocre.
He has a memory like sieve.
He is an audacious perverter of the truth.
(a) daring / bold
(a) daring / bold
We regard a person who does not possess a good memory as eccentric.
(d) strange / queer
(d) strange / queer
Being indignant at her husband’s behaviour, she decided to teach him a lesson.
She anticipated her husband’s white face with quivering lips confessing the theft of the child.
Her husband’s cheerful entry and enquiry about lunch and forgetting the baby was her vexation.
(d) annoyance / irritation
(d) annoyance / irritation
Most of us are bom with prosaically efficient memories.
They are abstracted from the world outside them.
Men with fallible memories try to make out a case for their superiority.
Choose the most appropriate antonym for the underlined word. (Exam model)
Many people who read the list of lost articles in the trains would be astonished.
Modem man remembers even telephone numbers.
The ordinary man seldom forgets to turn off lights.
(b) almost never
Moral giants remember to take medicines regularly.
The fact remains.
(d) lie / fiction
(d) lie / fiction
Some forget pills due to their antipathy.
(a) strong dislike
Chemists make their fortunes out of the medicines forgotten to take.
I am always reluctant to trust a visitor to post my letters.
I put it for safety into one of my pockets.
I get weary of holding it in my hands.
(d) energetic / fresh
(d) energetic / fresh
A methodical man always remembers everything.
A long chain of circumstances leads to a number of embarrassing questions’.
I am no great delinquent in such matters.
I dare not carry an umbrella.
(c) avoid / dodge
(c) avoid / dodge
Memories prevent them from doing prosaic things.
The angler who invents magnificent lies after a day’s fishing is bound to be absent-minded.
(c) weak / feeble
(c) weak / feeble
Absent’ – minded great people have no time to remember the mediocre.
(d) exceptional / excellent
(d) exceptional / excellent
People with fallible memories occasionally assert their superiority.
(a) likely to do mistakes
Memory is half the substance of their art.
He is an audacious perverter of truth.
A man who does not possess a good memory is often regarded eccentric.
(d) ordinary / conventional
(d) ordinary / conventional
What was her vexation?
Great Statesmen have the genius of memory and intellect combined.
(a) mental ability
(c) sharp witted
She was indignant at her husband’s behaviour.
(d) contented / composed
(d) contented / composed
She arrived home anticipating with angry relish the white face and quivering lips.