Samacheer Kalvi 6th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 3 The Age Of Empires : Guptas And Vardhanas

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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 6th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 3 The Age Of Empires : Guptas And Vardhanas

Samacheer Kalvi 6th Social Science The Age Of Empires : Guptas And Vardhanas Textual Evaluation

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
________ was founder or Gupta dynasty.
(a) Chandragupta I
(b) Sri Gupta
(c) Vishnu Gopa
(d) Vishnugupta
Answer:
(b) Sri Gupta

Question 2.
Prayog Prashasti was composed by ________
(a) Kalidasa
(b) Amarasimha
(c) Harisena
(d) Dhanvantri
Answer:
(c) Harisena

Question 3.
I’he monolithic iron pillar of Chandragupta is at ________
(a) Mehrauli
(b) Bhitari
(c) Gadhva
(d) Mathura
Answer:
(a) Mehrauli

Question 4.
________ was the first Indian to explain the process Of surgery.
(a) Charaka
(b) Sushruta
(c) Dhanvantri
(d) Agnivasa
Answer:
(b) Sushrutal

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Question 5.
________ was the Gauda ruler of Bengal.
(a) Sasanka
(b) Maitraka
(c) Rajavardhana
(d) Pulikesin 11
Answer:
(a) Sasanka

II. Match the statement with the reason and tick the appropriate answer:

Question 1.
Assertion (A) :Chandragupta 1 crowned himself as a monarch of a large kingdom after eliminating various small states in Northern India.
Reason (R) :Chandragupta I married Kumaradevi of Lichchavi family.
a. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
b. Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
c. A is correct but R is not correct.
d. A is not correct but R is correct.
Answer:
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

Question 2.
Statement I : Chandragupta II did not have cordial relationship with the rulers of South India.
Statement II : The divine theory of kingship was practised by the Gupta rulers.
a. Statement I is wrong, but statement II is correct.
b. Statement II is wrong, but statement I is correct.
c. Both the statements are correct.
d. Both the statements are wrong.
Answer:
(a) Statement I is wrong, but statement II is correct

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Question 3.
Which of the following is arranged in chronological order?
a. Srigupta – Chandragupta I – Samudragupta – Vikramaditya
b. Chandragupta I – Vikramaditya – Srigupta – Samudragupta
c. Srigupta – Samudragupta – Vikramaditya – Chandragupta I
d. Vikramaditya – Srigupta – Samudragupta – Chandragupta I
Answer:
(a) Srigupta – Chadragupta I – Samudragupta – Vikramaditya

Question 4.
Consider the following statements and find out which of the following statement(s) is / are correct

  1. Lending money at high rate of interest was practised.
  2. Pottery and mining were the most flourishing industries.

a. 1. is correct
b. 2. is correct
c. Both 1 and 2 are correct
d. Both 1 and 2 are wrong
Answer:
(a) 1. is correct

Question 5.
Circle the odd one
1. Kalidasa, Harisena, Samudragupta, Charaka.
Answer:
Samudragupta
Reason : Samudragupta was a king. Others were not.

2. Ratnavali, Harshacharita, Nagananda, Priyadharshika.
Answer:
Harshacharita
Reason .‘Harshacharita was written by Banabhatta. Other three were written by Harsha.

III. Fill in the blanks:

  1. ______ the king of Ceylon, was a contemporary of Samudragupta.
  2. Buddhist monk from China ______ visited India during the reign of Chandragupta II.
  3. ______ invasion led to the downfall of Gupta Empire.
  4. ______ was the main revenue to the Government.
  5. The official language of the Guptas was______
  6. ______ the Pallava king was defeated by Samudragupta.
  7. ______ was the popular king of Vardhana dynasty.
  8. Harsha shifted his captial from ______ to Kanauj.

Answer:

  1. Sri Meghavarman
  2. Fahine
  3. Hun
  4. Land Tax
  5. Sanskrit
  6. Vishnugopal
  7. Harsha
  8. Thaneswar

IV. State whether True or False :

  1. Dhanvantri was a famous scholar in the field of medicine.
  2. The structural temples built during Gupta period resemble the Indo-Aryan style.
  3. Sati was not in practice in the Gupta Empire.
  4. Harsha belonged to Hinayana school of thought.
  5. Harsha was noted for his religious intolerance.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. False
  3. False
  4. False
  5. False

V. Match the following:
A
a. Mihirakula – 1. Astronomy
b. Aryabhatta – 2. Kumaragupta
c. Painting – 3. Skandagupta
d. Nalanda University – 4. Caravan trader
e. Sartavaga – 5. Bagh
(a) 1,2,3,4,5
(b) 2,4,1,2,5
(c) 3,1,5,2,4
(d) 3,2,1,4,5
Answer:
(c) 3,1,5,2,4

B
a. Bana – 1.10,000 students
b. Harsha – 2. Prayag
c. Nalanda University – 3. Harshacharita
d. Hiuen – Tsang – 4. Ratnavali
e. Buddhist Assembly – 5 Si-Yu-Ki
a) 4,3,2,1,5
b) 5,2,1,3,4
c) 3,5,1,2,4
d) 2,1,3,4,5
Answer:
3,4,1,5,2

VI. Answer in one or two sentences.

Question 1.
Who was given the title Kaviraja? Why?
Answer:

  1. The title Kaviraja was given to Samudragupta.
  2. He was a great lover of poetry and music.
  3. In one of the gold coins, he is portrayed playing harp (Veenai)

Question 2.
What were the subjects taught at Nalanda University?
Answer:

  1. In Nalanda University Buddhism was the main subject of study.
  2. Other subjects like Yoga, Vedic literature and medicine were also taught.

Question 3.
Explain the Divine Theory of Kingship.
Answer:

  1. The divine theory of Kingship meant that king is the representative of God on earth.
  2. He is answerable only to God and not to any one else.

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Question 4.
Highlight the achievements of Guptas in metallurgy.
Answer:

  1. Mining and metallurgy were the most flourishing industries during the Gupta period.
  2. The most important evidence of development in metallurgy was the Mehrauli Iron Pillar installed by King Chandragupta in Delhi.
  3. This monolithic iron pillar has lasted through the centuries without rusting.

Question 5.
Who were the Huns?
Answer:

  1. Huns were the nomadic tribe, who under their great Attila were terrorising Rome and Constantinople .
  2. They came to India through Central Asia, defeated Skandagupta and spread across central India.
  3. Their chief Toromana crowned himself as king.
  4. After him, his son Mihirakula ruled and got finally defeated by Yasodharman, ruler of Malwa.

Question 6.
Name the three kinds of tax collected during the Harsha’s reign.
Answer:
A Bhaga, Hiranya and Bali were three kinds of tax collected during Harsha’s reign.

Question 7.
Name the books authored by Harsha.
Answer:
The books authored by Harsha were Ratnavali, Nagananda and Priyadharshika.

VII. Answer the following briefly :

Question 1.
Write a note on Prashasti.
Answer:

  1. Prashasti is a Sanskrit word, meaning commendation or ‘in praise of’.
  2. Court poets flattered their kings listing out their achievements.
  3. These accounts were later engraved on pillars so that the people could read them.
  4. The Prayog Prashasti, composed by Samudragupta’s court poet Harisena was engraved on Allahabad Pillar.
  5. This Allahabad Pillar inscription is the main source of information for Samudragupta’s reign.

Question 2.
Give an account of Samudragupta’s military conquests.
Answer:

  1. Samudragupta was a great general.
  2. He defeated Vishnugop, the Pallava ruler in the South.
  3. He conquered nine Kingdoms in northern India.
  4. He reduced 12 rulers of Southern India to the status of feudatories and forced them to pay tribute.
  5. He received homage from the rulers of East Bengal, Assam, Nepal, the eastern part of Punjab and various tribes of Rajasthan.

Question 3.
Describe the land classification during the Gupta period.
Answer:
(i) Classification of land during Gupta period.

a. Kshetra Cultivable land
b. Khila Waste land
c. Aprahata Jungle or forest land
d. Vasti Habitable land
e. Gapata Saraha Pastoral land

(ii) Land Tax was the main revenue to the government.

(iii) The condition of the peasants was pathetic. They were required to pay various taxes. They were reduced to the position of serfs.

Question 4.
Write about Sresti and Sarthavaha traders.
Answer:

  1. The contribution of the traders for the development of Gupta’s economy was very impressive.
  2. There were two types of traders, namely Sresti and Sarthavaha.
  3. Sresti traders usually settled at a standard place.
  4. Sarthavaha traders were caravan traders who carried their goods to different places.
  5. Trade items ranged from daily products to valuable and luxury goods.
  6. The Guptas developed roadways connecting different parts of the country.

Question 5.
Highlights the contribution of guptas ro architecture.
Answer:

  1. The Guptas were the first to construct temples, which evolved from the earlier trandition of rock-cut shrines.
  2. Adorned with towers and elaborate carvings, these temples were dedicated to all Hindu deities.
  3. The most notable rock-cut caves are found at Ajanta and Ellora (Maharashtra), Bagh (Madhya Pradesh) and
  4. Udaygiri (Odisha).
  5. The structural temples built during this period resemble the characteristic features of the Dravidian style.
  6. Two remarkable examples of Gupta metal sculpture are
    • a copper image of Buddha about 18 feet high at Nalanda.
    • Sultanganj Buddha seven-and-a-half feet in height.
  7. Gupta paintings are found on the Fresco of the Ajanta caves and the Bagh cave in Gwalior.

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Question 6.
Name the works of Kalidasa.
Answer:
Works of Kalidasa :

  1. Dramas : Sakunthala, Malavikagnimitra and Vikramaoorvashiyam.
  2. Other works are Meghaduta, Raghuvamsa, Kumarasambava and Ritusamhara.

Question 7.
Estimate Harshvardhana as a poet and a dramatist.
Answer:

  1. Harsha, himself a poet and dramatist, gathered around him best of poets and artists.
  2. Harsha’s popular works are Ratnavali, Nagananda and Priyadharshika.
  3. His royal court was adorned by Banabhatta, Mayura, Hardatta and Jayasena.

VIII. HOTS:

Question 1.
The gold coins issued by Gupta kings indicate __________
a. the availability of gold mines in the kingdom
b. the ability of the people to work with gold
c. the prosperity of the kingdom
d. the extravagant nature of kings
Answer:
c. the prosperity of the kingdom

Question 2.
The famous ancient paintings at Aanta were painted on __________
a. walls of caves
b. ceilings of temples
c. Rocks
d. papyrus
Answer:
a. walls of caves

Question 3.
Gupta period is remembered for __________
a. renaissance in literature and art
b. expeditions to southern India.
c. invasion of Huns
d. religious tolerance
Answer:
a. renaissance in literature and art

Question 4.
What did Indian scientists achieve in astronomy and mathematics during the Gupta period?
Answer:

  1. Invention of zero and the consequent evolution of the decimal system were the legacy of Guptas to the modem world.
  2. Aryabhatta, Varahamihira and Brahmagupta were foremost astronomers and mathematicians of the time.
  3. Aryabhatta, in his book ‘ Surya Siddhanta’, explained the true causes of solar and lunar eclipses.
  4. He was the first Indian astronomer to declare that the earth revolves around its own axis.
  5. Dhanvantri was a famous scholar in the field of medicine.
  6. He was a specialist in Ayurveda.
  7. Charaka was a medical scientist.
  8. Susruta was the first Indian to explain the process of surgery.

IX. Studtant Activity

Question 1.
Compare and contrast the society of Guptas with that of Mauryas.
Mauryan Society:

  1. According to Megasthenes, the Greek historian, the ancient Mauryan society comprised of seven divisions namely philosophers, farmers, soldiers, herdsmen, artisans, magistrates and councillors which were referred to as castes.
  2. In the ancient Mauryan society, the cultivators formed the largest group becoming the central nerve of agriculture in society.
  3. The caste system was very prevalent one.
  4. Women were also engaged in a variety of activities like archers, royal bodyguards, spies and performers. But women were most of the times dominated by their male counter parts.
  5. Wisdoms had a very honorable place in society. Offenses against women were severally dealt with.
  6. An urban way of life developed. Education became fairly wide spread.
  7. Slavery in India was beginning to make the appearance.

Gupta Society:

  1. The society was adhered to four vama system.
  2. According to laws of Manu, which was in force, women should be under the protection of their father, husband or eldest son.
  3. Polygamy was widely prevalent.
  4. The kings and the feudatory lords often had more than one wife.
  5. Inscriptions refer to Kubernaga and Dhruvasvamini as the queens of Chandragupta II.
  6. Sati was practised during the Gupta rule.

X. Life Skills :

Question 1.
Collect information about the contribution of Aryabhatta, Varahamihira and Brahmagupta to astronomy.
Answer:
Aryabhatta:

  1. Aryabhatta (476-550CE) was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.
  2. His major work, Aryabhatiya is a compendium of mathematics and astronomy.
  3. Aryabhatiya covers several branches of mathematics such as algebra, arithmetic, plane and spherical trigonometry.
  4. Aryabhatta discovered the position of nine planets and expressed that these likewise rotate around the sun.
  5. He also provided the circumference and measurement of the Earth and the radius of the orbits of 9 planets.
  6. Aryabhatta pronounced that the moon has no light of its own.
  7. He concluded that the earth is round. He also stated that it rotates on its own axis, which is why we have days and nights.
  8. He concentrated on a few geometric and trigonometric parts of the celestial sphere that are still used to study stars.
  9. In his old age, Aryabhatta composed another treatise ‘ Aryabahatta – Siddhanta’. It is the booklet for everyday astronomical calculation for performing rituals, To this very day, astronomical data provided in this text is used for preparing panchangs (Hindu Calendars).
  10. India’s first Satellite Aryabhatta was named after him.

Varahamihira:

  1. Varahamihira (505-587CE) was an Indian astronomer, mathematician and astrologer from Ujjain.
  2. Varahamihira is considered to be one of the Nine gems (Navarathnas) of the court of ancient ruler Yashodarman.
  3. His knowledge of westren astrology was thorough but he was also very intrested in astrology and horoschope
  4. His father was a worshipper of the Sun God and it was he who taught astrology.
  5. Varahamihira was a scientist. He declared that the earth was spherical. He was the first to claim that some ‘force’ might be keeping bodies stuck to the round earth. This force is now called gravity.
  6. He proposed that the moon and the planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to Sunlight.
  7. His book Panchasiddhantika on mathematical astronomy is one of the most important sources for the history of Hindu Astronomy.
  8. His encyclopedia Brihat-Samhita with 106 chapters include subjects planetary movements, eclipses, rainfall, clouds, growth of crops, various rituals.

Brahmagupta – (598-668 CE):

  1. Brahmagupta was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. He wrote some important works on both mathematics and astronomy.
  2. His most famous work is “Brahmasphutasiddanta”.
  3. Brahmagupta explained how to find the cube and cuberoot.
  4. He was the earliest known mathematician to treat zero as a number in its own right.
  5. He dedicated a substantial portion of his work to geometry and trigonometry
  6. He explains that since the Moon is closer to the Earth than the Sun, the degree of the illuminated part of the moon depends on the relative position of the sun and the moon. This can be computed from the size of the angle between the bodies.
  7. In his treatise Khandakhadyaka, explored the longitudes of the planets, diurnal rotation, lunar and solar eclipses, rising and settings etc.

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Question 2.
Visit a nearby ISRO centre to know more about satellite launching.
Answer:
ISRO :

  1. The Indian space Research Qrgnisation is the space agency of the government of India.
  2. Its headquarters is in the city of Bangalore.
  3. it was formed in 1969.
  4. It built India’s first satellite “Aryabhatta” in 1975.

Satellite Launching:

  1. Usually the word ‘Satellite’ refers to a machine that is launched into space and moves around the Earth or another body in space.
  2. Moon is an example of natural satellite. Thousands of artificial or Man made satellites orbit Earth.
  3. India has two operational launchers :
    Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).
    Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).

XI. Answer Grid :

Who was Toromana?

Ans : Chief of the Huns

Name the high ranking officials of Gupta Empire.

Ans: Dandanayakas and Mahadanayakas

Name the Gupta kings who performed Asvamedha yagna.

Ans : Samudra Gupta Kumaragupta I

Name the book which explained the causes for the lunar and solar eclipses.

Ans : Surya Siddhanta

Name the first Gupta king to find a place on coins.

Ans : Sri Guptha

Which was the main source of information to know about the Samudragupta’s reign?

Ans : Allahabad Pillar Inscription

Harsha was the worshipper of in the beginning.

Ans : Lord Shiva

University reached its fame during Harsha period.

Ans :Nalanda

Samacheer Kalvi 6th Social Science The Age Of Empires : Guptas And Vardhanas Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
Devichandraguptam was written by _______
(a) Visakhadatta
(b) Harisena
(c) Bana
(d) Harsha
Answer:
(a) Visakhadatta

Question 2.
Sri Gupta was succeeded by _______
(a) Chandra Gupta
(b) Samundra Gupta
(c) Ghatotkacha
(d) Skanda Gupta
Answer:
(c) Ghatotkacha

Question 3.
Vishnugopa was the ruler of _______
(a) Cheras
(b) Pandyas
(c) Pallava
(d) Cholas
Answer:
(c) Pallava

Question 4.
Srimeghavarman was the ruler of _______
(a) Singapore
(b) Ceylon
(c) Malaysia
(b) Hansena
Answer:
(b) Ceylon

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Question 5.
Srimeghavarman was a contemporary of _______
(a) Chandragupta I
(b) Sri Gupta
(c) Samudragupta
(d) Narasimhagupta
Answer:
(c) Samudragupta

Question 6.
Nitisara was authored by _______
(a) Kalidasa
(b) Visakhadatha
(c) Kamandaka
(d) Harisena
Answer:
(c) Kamandaka

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Question 7.
Hinayana and Mahayana were the two sects of
(a) Vaishnavism
(b) Saivism
(c) Buddhism
(d) Jainism
Answer:
(c) Buddhism

II. Match the statement with reason and tick the appropriate answer :

Question 1.
Assertion (A) : The Contribution of the traders for the development of Gupta’s economy was very impressive.
Reason (R) : The Guptas developed roadways connecting different parts of the country.
a. Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
b. Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
c. A is correct but R is not correct.
d. A is not correct but R is correct.
Answer:
(b) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A

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Question 2.
Statement I : Kumaragupta built the famous Nalanda University.
Statement II : Fahien spent many years studying Buddhism in Nalanda University.
a. Statement I is wrong but Statement II is correct.
b. Statement II is wrong but Statement I is correct.
c. Both the statements are wrong.
d. Both the statements are correct.
Answer:
(b) Statement II is wrong but Statement I is correct

Question 3.

Consider the following statements and find out which of the following statement(s) is / are correct.

  1. Lichchhavi was old gana-sanga.
  2. Srigupta was given the title “Kaviraja’

a. 1 is correct
b. 2 is correct
c. Both 1 and 2 are correctd. Both 1 and 2 are wrong
Answer:
a. 1 is correct

Question 4.
Circle the odd one.

Question 1.
Kshetra, Vasti, Nitisara, Khila.
Answer:
Nitisara
Reason : Nitisara is a book, whereas the other three were the classification of land in Gupta’s period.

Question 2.
Pataliputra, Benaras, Magadha, Mathura
Answer:
Magadha
Reason : Magadha was an ancient kingdom, where as the other three were the famous trade centers.

III. Fill in the blanks:

  1. Hiuen Tsang authored _______
  2. Fahien visited the court of _______
  3. The last of the great Guptas was _______
  4. The last recognised king of the Gupta empire was _______
  5. The espionage system of the Gupta was known as _______
  6. Pushyabhuti dynasty ruled from _______
  7. Harsha shifted his capital from Thaneswar to _______
  8. Sasanka of Bengal was hostile to _______
  9. Harsha met the Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang at _______
  10. Harsha built the charitable institution to care for the _______

Answer:

  1. Si-Yu-Ki
  2. Chandragupta II
  3. Baiaditya /Narasimha Gupta I
  4. Vishnugupta
  5. Dutakas
  6. Thaneswar
  7. Kanau
  8. Harsha
  9. Kajangala
  10. Sick and Poor

IV. True or False :

  1. The surname Devaraja referred to Vikramaditya.
  2. ChandraGupta II built the Nalanda University.
  3. Aprahata meant Jungle or forest land.
  4. Sresti traders were caravan traders.
  5. Asvamedha Yagna means horse sacrifice ritual.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. False
  3. True
  4. False
  5. True

V. Match:
A
Kalidasa – 1. Architect
Sanku – 2. Physician
Varahamihira – 3. Sanskrit Poet
Dhanvantri – 4. Magician
Vittalbhatta – 5. Astronomer
a) 1,3,2,4,5
b) 3,5,1,2,4
c) 3,1,5,2,4
d)4,2,3,1,5
Answer:
c) 3,1,5,2,4

B
Amarasimha – 1. Grammarian
Kahapanaka – 2. Sanskrit Poet
Varauchi – 3. Lexicographer
Harisena – 4. Buddhism
Hinayana – 5. Astrologer
a) 1,2,3,4,5
b) 3,5,1,2,4
c) 4,5,3,1,2
d)5,3,2,4,1
Answer:
b) 3,5,1,2,4

VI. Answer in one or two sentences

Question 1.
Who was Srigupta?
Answer:

  1. Srigupta is considered to be the founder of the Gupta dynasty.
  2. He is believed to have reigned over parts of present day Bengal and Bihar.
  3. He was the first Gupta ruler to be featured on coins.
  4. He was succeeded by his son Ghatotkacha.

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Question 2.
How did Chandragupta I crown himself the monarch of a larger kingdom?
Answer:

  1. Chandragupta I married Kumaradevi of the famous and powerful Lichchhavi family.
  2. With the support of this family, Chandragupta eliminated various small states and| crowned himself the monarch of a larger kingdom.

Question 3.
Mention the surnames of Chandragupta II.
The surnames of Chandragupta II were Vikramaditya, Narendrachandra, SimhachandraJ Narendrasimha, Vikrama Devaraja, Devagupta and Devasri.

Question 4.
What do the seals and inscriptions reveal about Gupta’s military administration?
Answer:

  1. Seals and inscriptions mentioned about the military designations as baladhikrita and mahabaladhikrita (Commander of infantry and cavalry respectively).
  2. The system of espionage included spies known as dutakas.

Question 5.
What were the metals used by the Guptas?
Answer:
Guptas used iron, gold, copper, tin, lead, brass, bronze, bell-metal, mica, manganese and red chalk.

Question 6.
Was there development of Sanskrit grammar during the Gupta period?
Answer:
The Gupta period saw the development of Sanskrit grammar based on the grammar of Panini and Patanjali who wrote Ashtadhyayi and Mahabhashya respectively.

Question 7.
Why did Harsha embrace Buddhism?
Harsha embraced Buddhism under the influence of his sister Rajyashri and the Buddhist monk and traveller Hiuen Tsang.

Question 8.
As a Buddhist, what are the contributions of Harsha?
Answer:

  1. Harsha belonged to Mahayana school of thought.
  2. Harsha treated vedic scholars and Buddhist monks alike and distributed Charities equally to them.
  3. He was the last Buddhist sovereign in India.
  4. As a pious Buddhist, Harsha stopped the killing of animals for food.

VII. Answer the following :

Question 1.
Write a note on Chandragupta II.
Answer:

  1. Chandragupta II was the son of Samudragupta.
  2. He was also known as Vikarmaditya.
  3. He conquered western Malwa and Gujarat by defeating the Saka rulers.
  4. He maintained friendly relationship with the rulers of southern India.
  5. The iron pillar near Qutub Minar is believed to have been built by Vikramaditya.
  6. Fahien, a Buddhist scholar from China, visited India during his region.
  7. Vikramaditya is said to have assembled the greatest writers and artists [Navaratna (Nine Jewels)] in his court.
  8. He was succeeded by Kumaragupta

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Question 2.
Mention the importance of Fahien’s travel accounts.
Answer:

  1. During the reign of Chandragupta II, the Buddhist monk Fahien visited India.
  2. His travel accounts provided us information about the socio-economic, religious and moral conditions of the people of the Gupta age.
  3. According to Fahien, the people of Magadha were happy and prosperous.
  4. Justice was mildly administered and there was no death penalty.
  5. Gaya was desolated, Kapilavasthu had become a jungle, but at Pataliputra, people were rich and prosperous.

Question 3.
Write a note on Nalanda University.
Answer:

  1. Nalanda University flourished under the patronage of the Gupta Empire in the 5th and 6th centuries and later under emperor Harsha of Kanauj.
  2. At Nalanda, Buddhism was the main subject of study. Other subjects like Yoga, Vedic literature and Medicine were also taught.
  3. Hiuen Tsang spent many years studying Buddhism in the University.
  4. Eight Mahapatashalas and three large libraries were situated on the campus.
  5. Nalanda was ravaged and destroyed by Turkish Muslims.
  6. Today it is a UbESCO World Heritage Site.

Question 4.
Explain the Gupta Monetary System under Samudra Gupta.
Answer:

  1. Samundragupta introduced the Gupta monetary system.
  2. Kushana coins provided inspiration to Samudragupta.
  3. The Gupta gold coins were known as Dinara.
  4. Gutpas issued many gold coins but comparatively fewer silver and copper coins.
  5. However, the post-Gupta period saw a fall in the circulation of gold coins, indicating the decline in the prosperity of the empire.

SamacheerKalvi.Guru

Question 5.
Write about the conquests of Harshavardhana.
Answer:

  1. The most popular king of the Vardhana dynasty was Harshavardhana. He ruled for 41 years.
  2. His feudatories included those of Jalandhar, Kashmir, Nepal and Valabhi. Sasanka of Bengal remained hostile to him.
  3. It was Harsha who unified most of northern India.
  4. He maintained a cordial relationship with the rulers of Iran and China.
  5. But the extension of his authority in the south was checked by Chalukya king Pulikesin II.
  6. The kingdom of Harsha disintegrated rapidly into small states after his death in 648 AD

Question 6.
Who was Hiuen Tsang?
Answer:

  1. Hiuen Tsang, the Chinese traveller, known as the “Prince of pilgrims”, visited India during Harsha’s reign.
  2. His book ‘Si-yu-ki’ provides detailed information about the social, economic, religious and cultural conditions of India during Harsha’s time.
  3. Hiuen Tsang tells us how Harsha, though a Buddhist, went to participate in the great Kumbhamela held at Prayag.

Question 7.
Mention the significance of the assemblies held at
a) Kanauj
b) Prayag.
Answer:
a. Assembly held at Kanauj:

  1. The assembly at Kanauj was attended by 20 kings.
  2. A large number of Buddhist, Jain and Vedic scholars attended the assembly.
  3. The golden statue of Buddha was consecrated in the monastery and a small statue of Buddha (three feet) was carried in a procession.

b. Assembly at Prayag:

  1. In the assembly at Prayag, Harsha distributed his wealth among the Buddhists, Vedic scholars and poor people.
  2. Harsha offered fabulous gifts to the Buddhist monks on all the four days of the assembly

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