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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 The Status of Tamil as a Classical Language
Name a few languages spoken in India:
Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Marathi
Mention a few international languages:
Spanish, French, Latin, Hebrew, Greek, English
The box below gives details of a few languages and their origin. Arrange them chronologically.
|Chinese – 1250 BC (BCE)||Hebrew – 1000 BC (BCE)||Latin – 75 BC (BCE)||Arabic – 512 AD (CE)|
|Tamil – 300 BC (BCE)||Greek – 1500 BC (BCE)||Sanskrit – 2000 BC (BCE)|
|Sanskrit – 2000 BC (BCE)||Greek – 1500 BC (BCE)||Chinese – 1250 BC (BCE)||Arabic – 512 AD (CE)|
|Hebrew-1000 BC (BCE)||Tamil – 300 BC (BCE)||Latin – 75 BC (BCE)|
Following are some of the great works in Tamil. Find out their names by filling in the missing letters.
Samacheer Kalvi 12th English The Status of Tamil as a Classical Language Textual Questions
1. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences based on your understanding of the letter.
Which is considered the oldest work in Tamil? When was it written?
Tholkappiyam is the oldest work in Tamil. It dates back to 200 BCE.
What is the evidence that supports the finding of the oldest Tamil work?
Earliest Tamil inscriptions are the evidences which support the finding of the oldest Tamil work.
Mention the Tamil works that date to the first two centuries of the current era.
Sangam anthologies and Pattuppattu date to the first two centuries of the current era.
Name the great Tamil work that speaks volumes on ethics.
“Tirukkural” is the great Tamil work which speaks volumes on ethics.
What are the other classical languages mentioned by the author?
The other classical languages mentioned by the author are viz. Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Chinese, Persian and Arabic.
Can you define and list the themes explored in Tamil Literature? Why?
No, one can’t define the themes explored in Tamil literature. There is not a facet of human experience that is not explored and illuminated by Tamil literature.
What is unique about Tamil and its sources?
Tamil is one of the primary independent sources of modem Indian culture and tradition.
Modern Indian languages are productive on earth. Why does the author say so?
Modem Indian languages are the most fecund and productive languages on the earth. Each has begotten a modem (often medieval) literature that can stand with any of the modem literatures of the world.
Which language is as old as Latin?
Tamil is as old as Latin and older than Arabic.
Why is it said that Tamil has the most independent tradition?
Tamil arose as an entirely independent tradition with almost no influence from Sanskrit and other languages. Its ancient literature is indescribably vast and rich.
What is the role of Classical Tamil in Modern Tamil and Malayalam?
Just as Sanskrit is the source of the modem Indo-Aryan languages, classical Tamil is the source language of modem Tamil and Malayalam.
Who is considered “Tamil Thatha” and why?
Dr. U. Ve. Swaminatha Aiyar is considered Tamil Thatha because he had collected old palm leaf manuscripts of ancient Tamil books and catalogued them with the support of Damotharapillai.
What has Mr. George L Hart try to make?
Mr. George L Hart has tried to make a comparative analysis of classical languages of the world.
What was the specific task assigned to George Hart by Prof. Maraimalai?
Professor Maraimalai has asked George Hart to write regarding the position of Tamil as a classical language.
What does George L Hart state unequivocally?
He unequivocally states that, by any criteria one may choose, Tamil is one of the greatest classical literatures and traditions of the world.
How antique is Tamil?
Tamil is of considerable antiquity. It predates the literatures of modem Indian languages by more than thousand years.
2. Answer the following questions in three or four sentences each.
Supreme works in Tamil elevate it to be treated as sacred as the Vedas. How?
Tamil has its own works that are considered to be as sacred as the vedas that are recited alongside vedic mantras in the great Vaisnava temples of South India.
Tamil is a touchstone to understand the Dravidian’s nature and development. Elucidate.
As Sanskrit is the most conservative and least changed of Indo-Aryan languages, Tamil is the most conservative of the Dravidian languages, the touchstone that linguists must consult to understand the nature and development of Dravidian culture.
How do you correlate the richness of Tamil language With Indian culture?
Unlike other modem languages of India, Tamil meets the criteria laid down for a classical tradition. It meets each of the requirements. It is extremely old. It is as old as Latin and older than Arabic. It arose as an entirely independent tradition, with almost no influence from Sanskrit or other languages. And its ancient literature is indescribably vast and rich.
How are Sangam anthologies and pattupattu important?
The great work of ancient Tamil, the Sangam anthologies and the pattupattu, date to first two centuries of the era. They are the first great secular body of poetry written in India, predating Kalidasa’s works.
How does the author compliment the indigenous nature of Tamil?
Tamil Constitutes only literary tradition indigenous to India that is not derived from Sanskrit. Indeed, its literature arose before the influence of Sanskrit become strong in the south. So it is qualitatively different from anything we have in Sanskrit or other Indian languages.
How does the author prove that Tamil has an extremely rich and vast intellectual tradition?
Tamil has its own poetic theory, its own grammatical tradition and its own esthetics. A large body of its literature that is quite unique. It shows Indian sensibility that is entirely different from Sanskrit or other Indian languages. Then it contains rich and vast intellectual tradition.
3. Answer the following in a paragraph of 100-150 words each.
How does the author justify the statement that Tamil is a classical language?
To qualify as a classical tradition, a language must fit several criteria. It should be ancient. It should be an independent tradition that arose mostly on its own, not an off-shoot of another tradition. It must have a large and extensively rich body of ancient literature. Unlike the other modem languages of India, Tamil meets each of these requirements. It is extremely old as Latin and older than Arabic. It arose as an entirely independent tradition with almost no influence from Sanskrit or other languages. Its ancient literature is indescribably vast and rich.
Tamil is of considerable antiquity. It predates the literatures of other modem Indian languages by more than a thousand years. Its oldest work Tholkappiyam, contains parts that, judging from the earliest Tamil inscriptions, dates back to about 200 BCE. The greatest works of ancient Tamil, the Sangam anthologies and Pattuppattu, date to the first two centuries of the current era. They are the first great secular body of poetry written in India, predating Kalidasa’s works by two hundred years.
Tirukkural is a fine example of an outstanding quality of classical Tamil Literature. Substantiate.
Tirukkural is one of the greatest works on ethics. But this is merely one of a myriad of major and extremely varied works that comprise Tamil classical tradition. There is not a facet of human existence that is not explored and illuminated by this great literature. Tirukkural the sacred verses, is a classical text considered one of the greatest works ever written on ethics and morality, chiefly secular ethics. It is known for its universality and non-denominational nature. Traditionally it has been appreciated as “the universal veda” and “universal code of conduct”. The ‘Kural’ is often called the masterpiece of Tamil literature both in philosophical and literary calibre. Next to Bible, Tirukkural is translated into a large number of languages across the world. Its universality appeals to readers in Japan and Singapore as well.
The credentials of Mr. George L Hart make him absolutely eligible to write regarding the position of Tamil among the classical languages of the world – Explain.
George L Hart has been a professor of Tamil at the university of California, Berkeley since ’ 1975. He is currently the holder of Tamil chair at the institution. He received his degree in Sanskrit in 1970 from Harvard University. He was appointed at first as Sanskrit professor at the University of Wisconsin Madison, in 1969. Besides Tamil and Sanskrit, he knows languages of Greek and Latin. He has read extensively in Greek and Latin literatures in their original. He is also well acquainted with comparative linguistics and literatures of modem Europe. Thus, he is the most eligible person to write regarding the position of Tamil among classical languages of the world.
How does George L Hart prove beyond doubt that Tamil is one of the primary independent sources of modern Indian culture and tradition?
Prof. George L Hart has extensively written on the influence of Tamil tradition on Sanskrit’s poetic tradition. But equally important, the great sacred Hindu devotional literature in Tamil beginning with Sangam anthologies have undergirded the development of modem Hinduism. Bhagavatpurana has widely borrowed from it. There are other texts in Telugu, Kannada and Sanskrit which have drawn heavily from Tamil literature. Tamil has its work which are considered as sacred as the Vedas that are recited alongside Vedamantras in the great Vaisnava temples of South India. Then, George L Hart proves Tamil is one of the primary independent sources of modem Indian culture and tradition.
How does the author endorse the greatness of modern Indian languages?
The author is aware of the richness of modem Indian languages. They are among the most fecund and productive languages on the earth. Each has begotten a modem (and often medieval) literature that can stand with any of the major literatures of the world. Yet none of them is a classical language. Like English and the other modem languages of Europe with possible exception of Greek, they rose on preexisting traditions rather late and developed in the second millennium.
Now complete each analogy with appropriate words from the list given below:
CLASSICAL : TRADITIONAL
ancient : ______
UNIQUE : COMMON
sensibility : ______
INDIGENOUS : NATIVE
extreme : ______
FACET : ASPECT
subtlety : ______
SACRED : IRREVERENT
conservative : ______
OBVIOUS : DOUBTFUL
vital : ______
INFLUENCE : IMPACT
denial : ______
ILLUMINATE : DARKEN
explore : ______
Match the -ics words with their appropriate meanings. You can make use of a dictionary.
|1.||Linguistics||the scientific study of a language|
|2.||Numismatics||the study of principles of beauty|
|3.||Electro Dynamics||the study of speech sounds|
|4.||Phonetics||the study of genes|
|5.||Aesthetics||the study of analysing information shown in numbers|
|6.||Genetics||the study of government and using power in public life|
|7.||Statistics||the study of building and flying air-craft|
|8.||Politics||the study of money and coins|
|9.||Aeronautics||the study of processing data for storage and retrieval|
|10.||Informatics||the study of the way that electric currents and magnetic fields affect each other|
- the scientific study of a language
- the study of money and coins
- the study of the way that electric currents and magnetic fields affect each other
- the study of speech sounds
- the study of principles of beauty
- the study of genes
- the study of analysing information shown in numbers
- the study of government and using power in public life
- the study of building and flying air-craft
- the study of processing data for storage and retrieval
(c) Homonyms, Homophones and Homograph Complete the following with appropriate words from the box given.
|night/knight||scent/sent/ cent||stationary/ stationery||lead/lead||reign/rain/rein|
- My mother brought an expensive watch as a birthday _______
- Everybody accepted the fact that overeating could easily _______ to obesity.
- In the middle ages, people were trained to become a _______ at a young age.
- Akshitha’s brother plays the bugle in his school _______
- The weather is fine and the air is filled with the _______ of lemons.
- What a splendid _______ the emperor Alexander’s might have been!
- Humans have foot, animals have _______
- They know how to _______ their mobile phones online.
- The teacher is so happy that all the students are
- The cars were in the traffic jam.
- It is not easy for him to tie in his shoe laces
Collocation: It is a pair or group of words that always appears in the same order. Here are some collocations picked from the lesson:
|subtlety and profundity||greatness and richness|
|culture and tradition||vast and rich|
Some of the commonly used collocations are:
|read and write||pros and cons||sooner or later|
|dead or alive||null and void||black and white|
(e) Descriptive Words
Go through the letter of Prof. George L Hart once again and enlist the words describing Tamil.
Identify the words that mean the following.
- This is something that is related to ancient time ______
- The word that describes pleasing in appearance ______
- Things that are not specifically religious ______
- The word to mention a large number ______
- This describes something which is produced or belongs to a particular region ______
- The thing that cannot be described ______
- This one is something which cannot come out of tradition
- The quality of existing or involving everywhere
The oath taken by Graduates of Medicine is given as Listening passage.
I solemnly pledge myself to consecrate my life to the service of humanity;
I will give to my teachers the respect and gratitude which is their due;
I will practice my profession with conscience and dignity;
The health of my patient will be my first consideration;
I will respect the secrets which are confided in me;
I will maintain by all the means in my power, the honour and the noble tradition of the medical profession;
My colleagues will be my brothers; I will not permit considerations of religion, nationality, race, party politics or social standing to intervene between my duty and my patient;
I will maintain the utmost respect for human life, from the time of conception, even under threat. 1 will not use my medical knowledge contrary to the laws of humanity;
I make these promises solemnly, freely and upon my honour.
After listening to the pledge played on the tape recorder carefully, fill in the following . statements with the right options given:
The medical graduates take oath to dedicate their ______ to the service of humanity.
The ______ of the patient should be the doctor’s greatest concern.
The would-be graduates promise to practise their profession with ______
They should respect the ______ of the patients.
The pledge is also to treat the patients without any ______
- The speakers must greet the chairperson, judges and the audience.
- The team supporting or opposing the motion must not change their point of view.
- If a speaker makes a statement, he or she must be able to provide evidence or reasons to support.
- The facts presented in a debate must be accurate.
- Speakers may not bring up new points in a rebuttal speech. Reinforce your points and conclude confidently.
- Points must be conveyed clearly and effectively without getting diverted from the main stream.
(a) Now it’s your turn to speak against the motion “Wars create more problem than they solve.” Express your views with valid points.
Respected judge, dignitaries on the dias and off the dias. I have come before you to speak against the topic” wars create more problems than they solve.
Abraham Lincoln waged the civil war in America to put an end to slavery. Of course many people died on both sides and Lincoln himself was assassinated soon after the abolition of slavery in America. But today America is a dream destination for any one who wants to make a fortune trading his individual expertise in Science, technology and ICT because the democratic foundation in America is solid and pluralistic culture encourages people from multi-ethnic backgrounds to emigrate and settle there as Americans. Trump administration is now taking a tough stand against emigrants and immigrants.
Next point we would like to put forward is that when we say “war” do not always think about conventional war. We wage war against poverty, illiteracy, drug addiction, alcoholism, bribery and terrorism. Such wars may not be won over quickly but they are necessary. We can’t allow the government alone to fight such social evils, we need NGOs, students and civil societies and even-principled political parties to fight against them to build a healthy society.
I would like to add that Swachata Abhiyan itself is a war against ignorance of people about the consequences of keeping their surroundings unclean and polluted. The campaign against Malaria, Dengue fever is a war against ill-health which necessarily generates awareness among people to prevent mosquito-caused illness among the masses.
We can also wage a war against the most dangerous social evil (i.e.) educated unemployment. Instead of just using war of words trying to prove our oratorical skills, we had better focus on skilling of youth in our country so that they can become self-reliant entrepreneurs giving employment to others by utilising ‘Mudra loan’. In fact launching of Atal tinkering labs all over the country at the higher secondary level is the first step in the direction of skilling school students. It is time we realized that paper degrees will not guarantee jobs, we should arm ourselves with the skills demanded in the job market or for opening our own small-scale industries. On behalf of my team, I conclude wars against social evils can solve problems not create new ones.
(b) Conduct a debate for and against the motion.“Mobile phone – a big boon”
Debate – Mobile phone boon or bane
Shakespeare has very wisely said: “There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so.” Similarly, mobile phones in themselves are neither good nor bad; however, the way they are used makes them good or bad. Mobile phones have made our life so easy and full of comforts! Everything is available online now. Our mobile phones have become our e-wallets, e-books, e-payments, e-files, e-folders, etc. Our mobile phones are connected with our Adhar Card, Bank Account, Loans, etc. We do our buying and other transactions using our mobile phones. Life without mobile phones is almost impossible in the modem times. It is neither addiction nor creates distraction. Rather it is a basic necessity in the contemporary times.
I conclude that it is irrational and illogical to say anything negative about mobile phones. As said earlier, they should be used with discretion and precautions.
Mobile Phones – A bane
My friend used a beautiful quote in my team’s favour, “There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so.” Unfortunately , Mobiles have become a source of major distraction for the students. Young boys and girls seem to have become inordinately addicted to these sites. They are thoughtlessly and uselessly wasting their precious time on useless sites.
The overuse of mobile poses serious health issues. Radiation affects eyesight due to over exposure to mobile screen for hours. Besides, mobile phones are also responsible for difficulty in concentration, fatigue, headaches and sleep disorders that can further trigger health complications. Text-neck is a serious health issue faced by mobile phone users. Owing to late night use of mobile phones, the youngsters skip on sleep which further causes health complications. This makes them aggressive and irritated. If you withhold an android phone from a child addicted to games in the mobile phone, he/she starts throwing tantrum. It is a curse that majority of the parents give the android phones to pacify the young children who refuse food and refuse to do homework if phone is withheld for even five minutes. Many young children who gaze at the mobile phone for hours tend to develop eye problems too. Addiction to mobile technology is a dangerous problem facing young children and adults of this country. Child psychologists and social activists are really worried how on earth we are going to wean young children away from the obsessive compulsive disorder of using android mobile phones and how we are going to redeem the youth from the sure disillusionment in continuing virtual friends to the point of ignoring family ties.
The other major disadvantage of the increasing use of such networking sites is the spread of obscenity or addiction to viewing explicit content. It is worrying because even adolescents have easy access to such sites because of the cheap data provided by greedy telecom business men. This is having a very negative impact on the impressionable minds of our young children and leading them astray.
The parents, teachers and the government must look into the problems being caused by mobiles and these networking sites and must formulate a strategy either to curb or completely stop its fast growing negative influence on the minds of our youth. Our youth is the future of our nation. We cannot allow this youth to waste their precious time on mobiles, chatting on the facebook and whatsapp. The same time must be spent on studying, researching and developing leadership or other life-skills. I conclude that it is our moral duty as well as responsibility to lead children and youth on the right path and teach them to make best use of these wonderful gadgets to improve themselves only.
(c) Organize a class debate on the motion ‘The advantages of social websites’. (Use the expressions for arguments like – First, firstly, I mean, My point is, In my opinion, Let me consider, etc.)
The advantages of Social websites
At the outset, let us consider some irrefutable facts .We live in a time and age where information is just a button press away. We are swayed by information all around us. We millennials want to know, read, understand and then speak our minds about it. That is where social media comes into play. Social media is one of the biggest elements that we live with and cannot ignore it. Social media plays a big role in our lives today. We have the access to any kind of information at just a button push away. Anything that is so vastly expanded has both positives and negatives related to it. The power of social media is very high and has its effects on each individual. It is difficult to imagine our lives with social media today and we do pay a price for excessive use. There is a lot of debate about the effects of social media on the society as a whole. Some feel that it’s a boon whereas other feels that it is a curse.
Social media is a collection of websites, applications and other platforms that enable us to share or create content and also helps us to participate in social networking. Social media is not limited to blogging and sharing pictures, there are a lot of strong tools also that social media provides. That is because that the impact of social media is very high and far reaching, it can make or break images.
Of course, I agree that social media is a topic of controversy today, many feel it’s a boon but there is a majority who feels that it is a curse. It has become an inevitable evil. Mostly people feel that social media has destroyed human interaction with a rapid rate and has modified modem human relationships. But there are others who feel that it is a blessing that has connected us to every part of the world, we can meet our loved ones that are far, we can spread awareness through it, we can send security warnings etc. There is a lot that social media can do. But it is an unarguable fact the presence of social media has made our lives convenient, easier and much faster.
In my opinion, mobile phones have not lowered active social life. On the contrary, they have made our social life more active! You must be wondering I am kidding! No I am not. Let, me prove it. The IT revolution has made the internet network so fast and easily accessible. As a result we are using Whatsapp, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc. more often sharing our latest whereabouts regularly, daily, or hourly! We wish our friends, relatives good morning, good afternoon, good, evening, or good night almost daily using picture messages or videos. Was social life ever so active in the past? We send receive invitations, news, and one another’s views through these socializing applications! What will you call this exchange of information? Has it lowered active social life or heightened active social life?
Role of media in Jasmine revolution:
I would like to give some examples as to how social websites can overhaul even governments. In an article “The Emerging Role of Social Media in Political and Regime Change” by Rita Safranek, published in ProQuest, talks about social media as a major catalyst in bringing about the change in many countries that were going through a major period of political unrest. The author talks about the triggering point of the Jasmine Revolution, the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi was captured by passers-by and posted and re-posted on YouTube for everyone to see. Furthermore, the mass protests at his funeral also spread quickly all over. The author goes on to say that despite very strict censorship of the internet by Tunisia’s government, Tunisians were able to emerge as highly connected – 33% of the Tunisian population uses the internet, 16% uses Facebook and 18% uses Twitter.
Although the government did block YouTube during the crucial period of protests, it was unable to stop experienced bloggers and activists from finding alternate methods like by using private and proxy networks to post and re-post various contents and videos all over the cyber world. In fact, there was an eight percent increase in the number of Facebook users in Tunisia in the beginning of January 2011. The nature of the content being shared also changed with time – more content related to the current political situation and unrest was being shared. Although the author credits social media with helping organize the protest and connect activists, she also goes on to say that the social media will not be helpful with running the country which is the current concern in the country at present.
Social media and Jallikkattu Protests:
In my opinion, the success of Jallikkattu is a recent example. The youth of the entire state of Tamil Nadu clamoured for the right to conduct a traditional sport that half of them had only seen on television. How did the Jallikattu case that has been in court for years, suddenly capture the imagination of the masses, enough to make them skip school, college and work . and take to the streets? How they gathered in millions in the Marina beach and camped there for weeks to press their demands in the most incredible manner. The answer to this is buried ‘ beneath superior internet connectivity, hash tags, viral videos, disenchantment and the post-truth phenomenon. Tamil Nadu boasts of spectacular rural teledensity, well ahead of most other parts of the country.
In my strong opinion, social media is the single most factor causing depression and anxiety in people. It is also a cause of poor mental growth in children. Increased use of social media ‘ can lead to poor sleeping patterns. There are many other negative effects like cyber bullying, hacking, etc. as well. There is an increased ‘Fear of Missing out’ (FOMO) at an all-time high i in youth because of social media. Such ill inclinations need to be prevented by educating boys, girls and vulnerable women against unguarded use of social websites.
Conclusion: One must carefully weigh the positives and the negatives before engaging excessively in social media. If used in the most judicious way, social media can be a boon for mankind.
(a) Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that causes harm to the ecosystem. The different kinds of pollution are air pollution, water pollution and land pollution. The release of various gases, finely divided solid particles, or liquid droplets that escape into the atmosphere to disperse and dilute in the environment is called air pollution. Modem society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as noise pollution, light pollution, and plastic pollution.
Particulate matter (PM), also known as particle pollution, is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets that get into the air. These particles if inhaled can affect health. The impact of PM 2.5 is particularly high in South Asia. Outdoor pollution is caused by a variety of pollutants like public and private vehicles, waste burning in the open, power
production industries and construction and even cigarette smoking in public places. Presently, air pollution is a major and growing risk factor for ill health in India. Delhi is one of the most air polluted cities in India. The air in the city as well as areas surrounding it has worsened to extremely hazardous levels in the recent years. This year’s pollution level is the worst in foi r years. Several studies have shown that poor air quality is a cause for many health issues among people with lower respiratory disorders with symptoms like dry cough, breathlessness, wheezing, chest discomfort, serious lung infections and cardio vascular diseases. Some studies throw light on the fact that about 16 per cent of the deaths worldwide in 2015 were due to pollution.
Air Masks are an option to protect oneself outdoor. Air masks can be used while commuting or while one is exposed to a polluted area. Some of these masks also include a layer of Activated carbon to filter the air. They protect us from suspended air particles and particulate matter up to the size of 2.5 microns and above. Their usage is limited to some days and should be disposed off after their prescribed duration of usage. The price for air masks starts from Rs 100 and can go up to Rs 500 and more. We have to take active measures to control pollution and protect ourselves to lead a healthy and pollution free life.
What is meant by pollution? Mention the different kinds of pollution.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that can cause harm to the ecosystem. The different kinds of pollution are air pollution, water pollution and land pollution.
How does Particulate matter cause air pollution?
Particulate matter (PM) also known as Particle pollution. It is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets that get into the air. These particles, if inhaled can affect health.
Identify three major causes of pollution in air.
The release of various gases, finely divided solid particles, or liquid droplets that escape into the atmosphere to disperse and dilute in the environment are the major causes of air pollution.
Name the types of pollution we encounter now.
We encounter air pollution, noise pollution, light pollution and plastic pollution.
What sort of health issues do people face due to air pollution?
The quality of air in cities has reduced to hazardous levels. This causes lower respiratory disorders with symptoms like dry cough, breathlessness, wheezing, chest discomfort, serious lung infections and cardio-vascular diseases.
How can we protect ourselves outdoor from air pollution?
Air masks can be used while commuting or while one is exposed to a polluted area. Some of these masks also include a layer of Activated Carbon to filter the air. They protect us from suspended air particles and particulate up to the size of 2.5 microns and above.
Suggest a suitable title to the passage.
Rising levels of Pollution and ways to avoid health issues.
Identify the meaning of the word similar to the one used in the fourth para:
(b) Read the following information given in the table below and answer the questions.
The number of stations between Chennai Central and Hazrat Nizamudin is ______
The train is expected to reach around 8.45 PM
Between the train runs at it’s maximum speed.
(i) Bhopal and Gwalior
(ii) Bhopal and Jhansi
(iii) Bhopal and Hazarat Nizamudin
(iv) Bhopal and Agra
(ii) Bhopal and Jhansi
Almost the train reaches Vijayawada.
(i) the day after
(ii) around early morning
(iii) late night
(iv) around noon
(iv) around noon
People prefer the Rajadhani express to travel from Chennai to reach the capital because
(i) it reaches the destination on the same day
(ii) The charge is reasonable
(iii) the train halts at eight stations
(iv) it is the shortest route from Chennai to New Delhi
(iii) the train halts at eight stations
The destination of Rajadhani express is
(i) Hazarat Nizamudin
(ii) New Delhi junction
(iii) Old Delhi
(i) Hazarat Nizamudin
Underline the gerunds in the following sentences.
1. Boys love playing cricket.
2. I love eating ice creams.
3. Jessie enjoys bothering others.
4. Painting is an interesting hobby.
5. Dancing gives me joy.
Use the gerundial form of the verb in the brackets and fill in the blanks.
- _________ (exercise) is good for health.
- _________ (fly) a kite is fun.
- _________ (shop) is my favourite hobby.
- My friend waited for the _________ (meet).
- Huckleberry Finn was responsible for _________ (signal).
Fill in the blanks with the correct infinitives.
- Deva forgot ______ the letter.
- The doctor advised the patient ______ his medicines without fail.
- Rajesh went to the airport ______ his friend.
- The bear climbed up the tree ______ the honey.
- The boys went to the forest ______ birds.
- tried hard ______ both ends meet.
- The archaeologists are trying ______ the ruins of Keelady.
- Solar energy is used ______ electricity.
- ______ concession, you have to apply well in advance.
- We have plans ______ to London during summer vacation.
- to post
- to take
- to receive
- to eat
- to trap
- to make
- to rebuild
- to produce
- To get
- to go
Combine each of the following pairs of sentences using participles. The first one is done for you.
Example: 1 didn’t know what to do. I phoned the police.
Not knowing what to do, I phoned the police.
The baby cried. She was feeling sleepy.
Feeling sleepy, the baby cried.
He lived alone. He had forgotten everybody.
Living alone, he had forgotten everybody
She walked out. She was smiling.
Smiling, she walked out.
The child says he needs attention. He shouts loudly.
Shouting loudly, the child says that he needs attention.
threw the pen. It was broken.
The pen being broken, I threw it away.
His coat is tattered. It needs mending.
Being tattered, the coat needs mending.
heard the noise. I turned around.
Hearing the noise, I turned around
He was dissatisfied. He quit his job.
Being dissatisfied, he quit his job.
The politician entered the campus. He was accompanied by many comrades.
Being accompanied by many comrades, the politician entered the campus.
The girl entered the room. She was singing a song.
Singing a song, the girl entered the room.
Articles And Determiners
Complete the following exercise using a/ an/ the/ ‘o’ (no article) in the underlined space where appropriate. Change capital letters to lower case letters at the beginning of a sentence if necessary.
According to (1) ______ National Weather Report, cyclones are winds circulating (2) ______ counter clockwise in (3) ______ Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in (4) ______ southern Hemisphere. Cyclones are usually accompanied by(5) ______ stormy weather. Tornadoes and hurricanes are types of cyclones.(6) ______ hurricane is (7) ______ cyclone that forms over (8) ______ tropical oceans and seas. (9) ______ hurricane rotates in (10) ______ shape of (11) ______ oval or a circle. (12) ______ Hurricane Andrew, which hit (13) ______ coasts of Louisiana and Southern Florida in August 1992, caused (14) ______ extreme devastation. It was one of (15) ______ most devastating hurricanes ever to hit (16) ______ U.S.. Fourteen people died of (17) ______ Andrew’s effect.
Complete the following sentences using appropriate determiners.
- Only _____ people can afford to buy a flat in Chennai.
- She earns so _____ that she could not make a decent living.
- _____ information that she gave proved false.
- How _____ sugar do you want?
- I am very tired today, as I had _____ guests today.
- _____ of my students have become doctors.
- _____ do I know about his personal life.
- How _____ pages did you read?
- _____ fertilizer used these days spoils the soil.
- During my student life I used to give _____ trouble to my teachers.
- a few
Degrees Of Comparison- Transformation
Transform each of the following sentences using the comparative degree without changing the meaning.
Very few Indian languages are as ancient as Tamil.
No other Indian language is more ancient than Tamil.
Hurricanes are as dangerous as tornadoes.
Hurricanes are not more dangerous than tornadoes.
This is the most challenging task I have ever undertaken.
This task is more challenging than any other task I have undertaken.
E-mail is the fastest means of communication.
E-mail is faster than all other means of communication.
Compulsive gambling is the worst habit a man can develop.
No other habit is more compulsive than gambling that a man can develop.
Rewrite each of the following sentences using the superlative degree retaining the meaning.
Shakespeare is greater than many other dramatists of the world.
Shakespeare is the greatest dramatist in the world.
Some people think that nothing is as important as money in life.
Some people think that money is the most important thing in life.
The peacock is more colourfull than any other bird found in India.
The peacock is the most colourfull bird in India.
Very few people in this town are as generous as Mr. Mohan.
Mr. Mohan is the most generous person in this town.
No other planet in our solar system is as cold as Neptune.
Neptune is the coldest planet in our solar system.
cannot do anything better for you than this.
This is the best thing I can do for you.
Replace the comparative adjectives in the following sentences with their positive forms.
Rural life is certainly more peaceful than urban life.
Urban life is not so peaceful as rural life.
The pen is mightier than the sword.
Sword is not so mighty as the pen.
Train journey is more comfortable than bus journey.
Bus journey is not so comfortable as train journey.
My mother can speak more sweetly than anyone else.
No one can speak so sweetly as my mom.
Gold is not more useful than iron.
Gold is not so useful as iron.
Tips for writing an effective slogan
Highlight a key benefit. The point of a slogan is to differentiate a product or brand from that of its competitors, while also underscoring the company’s general mission.
- Explain the company’s commitment.
- Be consistent.
- Keep it short and simple.
- Give them a rhythm, rhyme and ring.
- Stay honest.
- Make it timeless.
- Be unique and different.
While writing slogans to create awareness among the public
- Explain the need for the change.
- Make it sensible and easy to understand.
- Keep in mind the target audience and use catchy phrases to suit the audience.
Look at the pictures given below, and write slogans to advertise the products. Suggest your own
Sparkle Toothpaste – Removes bacteria and strengthens the gums.
Zoom Cam – Captures beautiful moments
Revos Water Purifier – Pure, natural, refreshing and healthful.
Mughal Gulab Jamun – Roly-poly syrupy sweet, melts in your mouth as soon as you eat.
Write slogans to create awareness of the following topics using the tips given above.
- Junk food – Fast food and fast death
- Labour Day – Labours are your many hands, keep them relaxed and happy.
- Save Water – Don’t let life slip down the drain.
- Yoga – Takes nothing but gives you health, fitness and peace.
- Blood Donation – Your blood can give life to someone.
Write a paragraph of about 150 words, on the following topics.
The teacher I like the most
I like my science miss Sangeetha very much. She always uses very lively demonstration to help us understand not only principles or formulaes in Science, but also human values. One day she taught us how plants also have the capacity to feel happiness and respond to the language of love. We thought it was a joke. The next day she brought two plants of the same size in two pots. She asked us to keep one in the next room window and one in our classroom near the window. Both plants were watered regularly. The plant in the classroom window was showered with love and we sang songs and spoke to her in an endearing language. The other plant was ignored. In three months time, the plant we doted on grew tall and started blooming. But the other plant was drooping and about to die. One girl in my class begged the teacher to give the same treatment to the other plant. Both the plants were kept together and the treatment continued. In the next few7 months both grew tall. It became difficult to tell them apart when we asked science miss how7 this happened she said, “With love everything grows.” So, I like Sangeetha teacher very much.
The value of discipline
Discipline is of much value in every walk of our lives. We need to be disciplined in the school,home, office, institutions, factory, playground, battlefield or other places. It is necessaiy for leading a happy and peaceful life. It gives us lots of great opportunities, the right way to go ahead, to learn new things in life, to experiences more within less time, etc. and grow. Whereas, indiscipline gives no peace and progress in life, instead it creates lots of problems. Discipline is the act of keeping one’s body, mind and soul under control and doing all the works in the right manner in the right time. It is also following the orders of our parents, elders, superiors, teachers and officers who lead us towards success. We need to behave well in an orderly manner. We should value the importance of discipline in our daily lives. People, who are not disciplined in their lives; face lots of problems and ultimately feel disappointed with themselves.
Need for Moral Education in schools
Education is said to be complete only when it leads to the all round development of an individual, which encompasses not only intellectual but also moral development. The social thinking of an individual is influenced by moral education which makes him/ her a person who can distinguish between what is right and what is wrong. In modem times, imparting moral education has become a basic need, where one is fast witnessing a degeneration of moral values. Students are the future of our country. The future of our country depends on the moral values imparted to them. Moral lessons should be properly taught among students in homes, schools and colleges. Moral education is concerned with moral virtues, such as respect for others, honesty and responsibility. It is important as it gives an understanding of diversity, tolerance, mutual respect and pluralistic values. Since young students readily and unconsciously learn whatever is taught to them, whether good or bad, if they do not have proper guidance, they may get misled. Therefore, it is crucial that the students be given moral education which will make them acquire sound religious and moral principles, that will lead to the development of appropriate attitudes and values that will help them take good decisions in their adulthood.
The importance of Good Health
We are familiar with the saying, “Health is wealth”. Health is a state of complete physical, social and mental well being and not merely the absence of a disease which is more important than any amounts of wealth. When there is health and peace of mind, a person can achieve more than even he/she can imagine. It is a resource of everyday life. Mahatma Gandhi has said, “It is health which is real wealth, and not pieces of gold and silver”. There is nothing more blessed than to be healthy all through life without being dependent on anyone. People who don’t have a healthy lifestyle, suffer a range of health disorders like obesity, high blood pressure, heart diseases, diabetes, high cholesterol, kidney problems, liver disorders, etc. An unhealthy person will always be worried and cannot be cheerful. Being healthy takes lots of efforts, although, it is rewarding. Being in good health alone allows a person to perform well in their daily lives and be successful.
The importance of Reading
Descartes says, “The reading of all good books is like a conversation with the finest people of the past centuries.” It is rightly said that Books are your best friend as reading helps build up your confidence and uplifts your mood. Reading can help one grow and give a new perspective in life. The more one reads, the more one falls in love w’ith reading. Reading develops language skills and vocabulary. Reading books is also a way to relax and reduce stress. Reading increases creativity and enhances one’s understanding of life.
Reading also inspires one to develop writing skill as well. If one wants to adopt some good habits in life then reading should definitely be on the top of one’s list. It plays a vital role in the positive mental attitude and development of a person. Reading leads to self-improvement. The pleasure of reading cannot be expressed in words. One needs to read to experience the joy of reading. There are many advantages of good reading habits which keeps one’s mind active, strong and healthy. Reading is essential for one’s overall personality growth and development. Besides, one will never feel bored or lonely if one develops good reading habits.
Observe the following pictures and write a paragraph in about 150 words about each one of them.
Now, in India, we have the technology to predict the time and location of a cyclone at least 6 to 10 hours prior to its occurrence. This picture reminds one of the devastation caused by Gaja cyclone in the recent past.
Tamil Nadu government was much appreciated for the timely warning given to the people. Many farmers in Nagapattinam, Thiruvarur and Pudukkottai districts who had coconut farming were disheartened because it would take a minimum of 15 to 20 years to raise them again. On such disasters, instead of just waiting for the state or centre to give doles of mercy, youth across the state, ‘ who are volunteers in NSS, NCC, JRC, Scouts and Guides can swing into action and help rebuild the victims’ homes by raising funds and by offering labour.
Volunteers can generate awareness among people to go for mixed crops and not depend on only one type of crop for their sustenance. Students can dig wells in such cyclone prone districts because water becomes scarce as all electricity gets disrupted for many weeks. If students pitch in and join in rescue and rehabilitation work, they would be recognised as responsible citizens of the country.
Animals in captivity always long for freedom even if they are fed regularly. But, they don’t like it. Animals love to hunt and eat their prey alive. Cats roam freely and chase the rats and eat them. Even if domesticated they don’t want to be kept in a cage like an object showcased for an audience. They want to roam inside the house and even share the pillow of the mistress of the house. The canary’ bird we find in the picture is a singing bird. It is sure that if the cat were out, it would try to make a meal of him. Yet, the bird feels sorry for the caged cat. It tries to appeal to the mistress of the house to let the cat free.
The Status of Tamil as a Classical Language About The Author
George Luzerne Hart is a professor of Tamil language at the University of California, Berkeley. His work focuses on classical Tamil literature and on identifying the relationships between Tamil and Sanskrit literature. In 2015, the Government of India awarded him the title of Padma Shri, the third highest civilian honour. He studied Latin, Greek, Sanskrit and several modem and European languages.
The Status of Tamil as a Classical Language Summary in English
Mr. George L. Hart, a linguistic anthropologist, has made an attempt to make a comparative analysis of classical languages of the world. In response to Prof. Maraimalai’s request, the author, after a meticulous analysis of world’s classical languages writes about the position of Tamil, which is the best among the equals.
Eligibility of the scholar
Prof. George L. Hart is heading the Department of Tamil in the University of Carolina, Berkeley, since 1975. Currently he holds the Tamil chair there. He has done his degree in Sanskrit in Harward. Initially, he was appointed as Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1969. Besides Tamil and Sanskrit, the author is well-versed in Greek and Latin. He has read extensively in their literature in the original. He has a strong grounding in the comparative linguistics and literatures of modem Europe. In recognition of his deep knowledge of Indian classical languages, he was conferred Padma Shri award, the third highest civilian honour
Tamil – A classical language with classical tradition and literature
Three most important things according to the author make Tamil indisputably the best classical language in the world in comparison with Greek, Latin, Arabic and Sanskrit. The first is its antiquity. Sangam literature and the Pattuppattu date to first two centuries of the current era. Secondly, Tamil possesses indigenous literary tradition independent of Sanskrit or any other Indian languages. | In fact, Tamil has influenced Sanskrit and Malayalam to a great extent. Thirdly, it is fit to stand beside the great literatures of Sanskrit, Greek, Persian and Arabic. The subtlety and profundity of Tamil works, their varied scope and universality qualify Tamil to be rated as one of the greater classical tradition of the world. Thirukkural is one of the world’s greatest work on ethics. It covers every facet of human life.
Meeting all criterion of a classical language
Tamil is extremely old (i.e.) as old as Latin and older than Arabic. It arose as an entirely independent tradition with almost no influence from Sanskrit or any other Indian Languages. There’s god’s plenty in Tamil literature.
It is established beyond doubt that Tamil is one of the greatest classical languages of the world. It has become a vital and central part of the greatness and richness of Indian culture.
The Status of Tamil as a Classical Language Summary in Tamil
திரு. ஜியார்ஜ் எல். ஹார்ட் எனும் மொழி விற்பன்னர் உலகத்தின் சிறந்த மொழிகளை ஒப்பிடும் முயற்சியில் ஈடுபட்டார். பேராசிரியர் மறைமலை அவர்களது வேண்டுகோளுக்கு இணங்க, ஆசிரியர் உலகத்தில் உள்ள தொன்மையான மொழிகளைப் பகுப்பாய்வு செய்து செம்மொழிகளுள் தமிழ் தலைசிறந்தது என்ற தமிழின் நிலையைப் பற்றி எழுதுகிறார்.
பெர்க்லேயில் உள்ள பேராசிரியர் ஜியார்ஜ் எல். ஹார்ட், கலிபோர்னியா பல்கழைக்கழகத்தில் தமிழ் துறையில் தலைமை பொறுப்பாளராகப் பொறுப்பேற்று 1975 முதலே பணியாற்றி வருகிறார். தற்போது தமிழ்த்துறையின்
பொறுப்பாளராகப்பணியாற்றுகிறார். சமஸ்கிருத மொழியில் பட்டப்படிப்பை ஹர்வேட் பல்கலைக்கழகத்தில் முடித்தார். அவர் முதன் முதலாக மடின்சனில் உள்ள விஸ்கான்சின் பல்கலைக்கழகத்தின் சமஸ்கிருத மொழியின் பேராசிரியராக நியமிக்கப்பட்டார். தமிழ், சமஸ்கிருதத்தைத் தவிர கதாசிரியர் கிரேக்க மற்றும் லத்தீன் மொழிகளிலும் புலமை பெற்றிருந்தார். அந்த இலக்கிய நூல்களின் மூலப்பிரதிகளை பரவலாகப் படித்துள்ளார். மொழிகளை ஒப்பிடுவதிலும் ஐரோப்பிய இலக்கிய நூல்களிலும் பலமான அடிப்படை நுணுக்கங்களைப் பெற்றிருந்தார். இந்திய பாரம்பரிய மொழிகளின்பால் அவருக்கிருந்த ஆழ்ந்த’ புலமையை அங்கிகரிக்கும் வகையில் அவருக்கு மூன்றாம் நிலை உயர்ந்த குடிமகன் விருதான ‘பத்மஸ்ரீ’ வழங்கப்பட்டது.
தமிழ் – பாரம்பரியமும் மற்றும் இலக்கியமும் கொண்ட சிறந்த மொழி:
லத்தீன், அரேபிய மற்றும் சமஸ்கிருத மொழிகளுக்கு நிகராக சர்ச்சைக்கு இடமே இல்லாத வகையில் தமிழ் மொழியை ஆசிரியர் கணிக்க மூன்று காரணங்கள் உள்ளன. முதலாவதாக தமிழ் பண்டைய காலத்திய மொழியாகும். சங்க இலக்கியமும் மற்றும் பத்துப்பாட்டும் இந்த நூற்றாண்டில் முதல் 200 ஆண்டுகளைத் தழுவியது. இரண்டாவதாக தமிழ் மொழியானது சமஸ்கிருத மொழியையோ அல்லது வேறு இந்திய மொழியையோ தழுவாத தேசிய இலக்கிய பாரம்பரியத்தைப் பெற்றது. இரண்டாவதாக, தமிழ்மொழி தேசிய இலக்கிய பாரம்பரியத்தைப் பெற்றிருப்பதோடு, சமஸ்கிருத மொழியிலிருந்தும் இதர இந்திய மொழிகளிலிருந்தும் தனித்துவம் பெற்று இருந்தது. சொல்லப் போனால், தமிழ் மொழி சமஸ்கிருத மற்றும் மலையாள மொழிக்கு ஊன்றுகோலாக அமைந்தது. மூன்றாவதாக சமஸ்கிருத, கிரேக்க, பெர்சிய மற்றும் அரேபிய இலக்கியங்களுக்கு நிகராக நிற்கும் தகுதியையும் அது பெற்றிருந்தது. தமிழ் மொழியின் நுணுக்கம், ஆழ்ந்த தன்மை, அதன் விசாலம் மற்றும் எங்கும் பரவியிருக்கும் தன்மைகள் தமிழை உலகிலேயே உன்னத பாரம்பரிய தத்துவங்களைத் தழுவியது என உறுதி செய்கிறது. திருக்குறள் உலகிலேயே உன்னதமான நீதிநெறி நூலாகும். அது மனித வாழ்க்கையின் எல்லாக் கோணங்களையும் படம் பிடித்துக் காட்டுகிறது.
பாரம்பரிய மொழிக்கான எல்லா தகுதியையும் உடையது:
தமிழ் மிகப் பழமையான மொழியாகும். லத்தீன் மொழியை ஒத்ததும், அரேபிய மொழிக்கும் அப்பாற்பட்டதாகும். தமிழ் தனி பாரம்பரிய மொழியாக எந்த மொழியின் தொடர்பும் இன்றி சுயம்பு போலத் தோன்றியது. கடவுளின் அருள் நிறைந்தது தமிழ் மொழி.
சந்தேகத்திற்கு இடமில்லாமல் தமிழ் உலகிலேயே மிகச் சிறந்த பாரம்பரிய மொழி என நிலைநாட்டப்பட்டுள்ளது. அது தமிழ் கலாச்சாரத்தின் முக்கிய மற்றும் மையமான புகழையும் மற்றும் சிறப்பையும் கொண்டதாக விளங்குகிறது.
The Status of Tamil as a Classical Language Glossary
The Status of Tamil as a Classical Language Synonyms
Find out the synonym of the underlined word in each of the following sentences.
Tamil is unequivocally one of the greatest classical literature.
I am well acquainted with comparative linguistics.
Tamil is of considerable antiquity.
They are the first great secular body of poetry.
(d) non – religious
(d) non – religious
Tamil constitutes the only literary tradition indigenous to India.
It has its own aesthetics.
(c) sense of humour
(d) sense of beauty
(d) sense of beauty
It shows a sort of Indian sensibility.
The subtlety and profundity of its works amaze us.
Tamil is the only pre-modem Indian literature to treat the subaltern extensively.
Every facet of human existence is explored.
The sacred works of Tamil literature have undergirded the development of modem Hinduism,
(a) superficially supported
(b) ornamentally supported
(c) provided fundamental support
(d) gave fake support
(c) provided fundamental support
Tirukkural has illuminated all facets of human life.
(a) made clear
(b) made ambiguous
(c) made vague
(d) made a clutter
(a) made clear
Sanskrit is the most conservative language.
Tamil is the touchstone that linguists must consult to understand the nature of development of Dravidian.
Modem Indian languages are the most fecund and productive ones.
The Status of Tamil as a Classical Language Antonyms
Find out the antonym of the underlined word in each of the
I am well acquainted with comparative linguistics.
Tamil is one of the greatest classical literatures.
They are the first great secular body of poetry written in India.
Tamil is indigenous to India.
They are the most fecund and productive languages.
Tamil is unequivocally a classical language.
The great sacred works are equally important.
Sanskrit is the most conservative language in India.
it is quite unique.
Tamil has treated the subaltern extensively.
Tirukkural illuminated every facet or human life.
Their universality makes Tamil stand as one of the greatest.
It is patently obvious to anyone who knows the subject.
Tirukkural is merely one of the myriad of major works.
(c) a few
(c) a few
Tamil is of considerable antiquity.