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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Note-Making and Summarising
Notes are short written record of facts to aid the memory. Notes are usually taken to record a speech or dictation while listening to it or after reading a book, magazine or article. They are referred back whenever needed and may be reproduced in the desired way.
The Necessity Of Note-Making:
Knowledge is vast and unlimited, but our memory is limited. We cannot remember all the information all the time. Hence note-making is necessary. With the help of notes we can recall the entire information read/heard months ago. It is quite useful to students preparing for many subjects. At the time of examinations, it is not possible to go through voluminous books. At such critical times, notes are quite handy. Hence note-making fulfills three useful functions:
- It keeps a lot of information at our disposal for ready reference.
- It helps us reconstruct what was said or written and thus accelerates the process of remembering/recall.
- It comes in handy in delivering a speech, participating in a debate/discussion, writing an essay and revising lessons before an examination.
How Note-Making Helps Us:
While making notes we do not simply read the passage/listen to speech but consider various points made by the writer/speaker and draw our own inferences about what is being presented. Thus note-making helps us in understanding the passage in a better way and organising our thoughts systematically.
Characteristics Of Good Notes:
- Short and Compact: Good notes must be short and compact.
- Complete Information: They must contain all the important information.
- Logical: They must be presented in a logical way.
- Understandable: They should be understandable when consulted at a later stage.
Mechanics Of Note-Making:
While making notes we follow certain standard practices. These may be listed as follows:
(a) Heading and Sub-headings
(b) Abbreviation and Symbols
(d) Numbering and Indentation
Heading And Sub-Headings:
The heading reflects the main theme whereas the sub-headings point out how it has been developed. The selection of proper heading and sub-heading reveals the grasp of the passage by the students. In the absence of proper assimilation of main ideas and subsidiary points, it is impossible to make notes.
Abbreviations And Symbols:
They are used for precision and economy of words and hence quite helpful in note-making. At least four recognizable abbreviations are to be used in note-making in your board examination. These are essential components of note-making. Students often make use of abbreviations and symbols in doing their written work.
Read the following passages carefully and make notes or summarize.
The greatness of a country depends upon its people. India is fortunate to have vast human resources. Our countrymen are second to none in intelligence and in doing hard work. From the ancient period, Indians excelled in art architecture, knowledge of metals, medicines, literature etc. After our independence in 1947, the government took steps to improve our country in all spheres.
By the five-years plans, provisions are made for the development of the country. The first five-year plan was specially designed to improve irrigational methods. By the green revolution, we attained self-sufficiency in the field of agricultural production. The present age is the atomic age. India too established an Atomic Energy Commission t under the guidance of Dr. Bhabha. India made the first successful nuclear explosion on 18th May, 1974.
This made India the sixth member of the world nuclear club. It was purely the efforts of the Indian Scientists alone. We have sent our Indian Cosmonaut to space also on 3rd April, 1984. Shri Rakesh Sharma, the best pilot of the India Air Force travelled into space with two Soviet Spacemen in Soyuz I Spaceship.
Indians best human resources – excelled in architecture, metallurgy and medicine – five year plans – initial – agriculture development – Energy development focus – drive future – atomic energy nuclear implosion on 18th may 1974. Space also rapid strides – Indian Cosmonaut on 3rd April 1984 – Rakesh Sharma I Cosmonaut.
Summary: Rough draft
Indians have been great human resources. Since ancient times, the have excelled in various fields such as metallurgy, medicine and architecture in the ancient period itself. After 1947, the Government through five year plans attained self-sufficiency in agricultural production. Gradually the Government focused on developing atomic energy and space technology. Atomic implosion in 1974 and conquest of space in 1984 are best examples of India’s success in joining space club and energy development.
Ancient Indians proved their expertise in metallurgy, medicine and architecture. After 1947, the country focused on agricultural self-sufficiency through five year plAnswer:She attained it in agricultural production. Then India joined the small band of atomic energy producing countries and by atomic explosion in 1974 proved her power. She also joined space club in 1984 by sending Rakesh Sharma to space.
A proper consideration of value of time will inspire habits of punctuality. “Punctuality, said Louis XIV, is the politeness of kings”, it is also the duty of gentlemen and the necessity of men of business. Nothing begets confidence in a man sooner than the practice of this virtue and nothing shakes confidence sooner than the want of it. He who holds to his appointment and does not keep you waiting for him shows that he has regard for your time as well as for his own. Thus punctuality is one of the modes by which we testify our personal respect for those whom we are called upon to meet in the business of life.
It also conscientious in a measure for an appointment is a contract, expressed or implied and he who does not keep it, breaks faith as well dishonestly loses character. We naturally come to the conclusion that the person who is careless about time will be careless about business and he isn’t the one to be trusted with the transaction of matters of importance.
These are the main reasons, why laxatives, indigestion-remedies, painkillers, cough-mixtures, tonics, vitamin and iron tablets, nose drops, ointments and many other preparations are found in quantity in many households. It is doubtful whether taking these things ever improves a person’s health, it may even make it worse. Worse, because the preparation may contain unsuitable ingredients; worse because the taker may become dependent on them; worse because they might be taken excess; worse because they may cause poisoning, and worst of all because symptoms of some serious underlying cause may be asked and therefore medical help may not be sought. Self-diagnosis is a greater danger than self-medication.
Punctuality – duty of kings – necessity of men of business – punctuality gains confidence – careless with time – loss of faith – business opportunities – consideration of value of time indispensable for success in life.
Summary: Rough draft
Punctuality is the politeness of kings. It is also the duty of gentlemen and the necessity of men of business. A punctual man has regard for time and himself. It is sure that a person who is careless in time will be careless in all actions, business, etc. He will not be trusted with the transaction of matters of importance.
Punctuality is the duty’ of gentlemen and necessity of businessmen. It gives immense faith, trust and confidence on them. Punctuality in keeping up appointments proves one’s personal respect for the other person’s time. It is sure that a person who is careless in time and who does not keep up time will be careless in all actions, business etc. He will not be trusted with the transaction of matters of importance. So, to succeed in personal as well as business life. One should have a proper consideration of the value of time.
Some people think that the aim of education is merely to give knowledge. These people want students to read books, books, books and do nothing else but add to their knowledge. Others believe that knowledge alone is not enough; only that which enables a man to earn his living can be called education. Such people think that bread is more important than anything else. Still others believe that education should aim solely at making good citizens and good patriots.
All these people see only one of the several purpose of education. As a matter of fact, education should aim at all these three things together. It should give men, knowledge, make them self-reliant and able to serve others. Education should not produce citizens who, while they love their own freedom, take away the freedom of others. It should produce men who love their own country but who do not want to harm other countries.
The true aim of education
Merely to give knowledge – knowledge not enough – earn a living – no to make good citizens and patriots – in fact all the three – achieve – give knowledge – self-reliant – serve other – not selfish people – patriots who love other countrymen as well.
Summary of the passage: Rough draft
There are diverse opinions about the aims of education. First school think that pursuit knowledge in the aim of education. Second school says it should empower him to earn living. Third school says education must aim only at citizen marketing. In fact the real aim of education should address all the three. Education should produce citizens with love for mother land and other land and have knowledge self- reliance and tenderly to serve others.
There are three different schools of thoughts on the aim of education. They are viz to pursue knowledge, gain earing capacity, to become self-reliant and finally to become good citizens. The true aim of education must be the combination of all the three. Education must enable students to gain knowledge, acquire wage earning skills and also become good citizens with love for motherland and other lands.
Compared to a motorbike or car, the bicycle is a slow moving vehicle but its popularity has been on the increase in recent years. There are many reasons for this. Firstly, the bicycle does not require petrol or diesel as a car or motorbike does. In these days of fuel shortage this is definite advantage; it draws power from the rider. The bicycle, moreover, is small, light and convenient. There are no parking problems.
Another reason for its popularity is that it takes one, to one’s destination with more certainty than cars or large motorbikes which are often held up in traffic jams. Then, there is the fact that the bicycle causes absolutely no pollution. It produces no noise and no smoke. Finally, it is now known that riding a bicycle is good exercise which tones up one’s muscles. No wonder, more and more people prefer a bicycle to other modes of transport.
Cycle – the best mode of transport
Cycles – advantage over cars and bikes – popular – no petrol or diesel – small – no parking issue – Traffic jam – no issue – no pollution – tones up muscles – a good exercise.
Summary of the passage: Rough draft
The cycle’s popularity is on the high. It doesn’t need petrol or diesel. Due to fuel shortage, cycle is a definite advantage. It is small, light, convenient. No parking problems and traffic jams. Moreover cycle causes no pollution, noise or smoke. Cycling is a good exercise that tones up muscles.
Cycle has many advantages over other modes of transport. Its popularity is on the increase. It doesn’t need petrol or diesel. Cycle is a definite advantage. It is small, light, convenient.
Parking problems and traffic jams do not affect the cyclist’s progress. Moreover, cycle causes no pollution such. Cycling keeps one fit, tones up one’s muscles.
Did you ever have a small boy complain of having to hang about a railway station and wait for a train? No, for to him to be inside a railway station is to be inside a cavern of wonder and a palace of poetical pleasures. Because to him the red light and the green light on the signal are like a new sun and a new moon. Because to him when the wooden arm of the signal falls down suddenly, it is as if a great king had thrown down his staff as a signal and started a shrinking tournament of trains.
I myself am of little boy’s, habit in this matter. They also serve who only stand and wait for the two fifteen. Their meditations may be full of rich and fruitful things. Many of the most purple hours of my life have been passed at Clapham junction. Which is now, I suppose, under water. I have been there in many moods so fixed any mystical that the water might well have come up to my waist, before I noticed it particularly.
Note making: Mystical Pleasure
Children happy – waiting for train – not bored – cavern of wonder – poetic pleasure – red and green signals – sun and moon – wooden signal staff- akin to king’s scepter – controlling the flow – tournament of trains – The author like Milton – waits and serves – purple hours of youth – Railway station – now under water gets lost – waist deep in water – undergo same mystical pleasures.
Summary: Rough draft
A small boy never complains to wait for a train. To him, a railway station is a place of wonder and a palace of poetical pleasure. The red light and green light are like a new sun and a moon.
The wooden arm is like a staff of king. The author also has the same feeling. He spent many of his purple hours at Clapham Junction. He visits the shot remembering the past.
A small boy never complains to wait for a train. To him, a railway station is a place of wonder and a palace of poetical pleasure. The red light .and green light are like a new sun and a moon. The wooden arm is like a staff of a king. The author also has the same feeling. He spent many of his purple hours at Clapham Junction which is now under water. Under nostalgia, the author is lost in mystical thoughts in waist-deep water.