Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Mineral Nutrition Text Book Back Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Identify correct match.

1. Die back disease of citrus (i) Mo
2. Whip tail disease (ii) Zn
3. Brown heart of turnip (iii) Cu
4. Little leaf (iv) B

(a) 1. (iii), 2. (ii), 3. (iv), 4. (i).
(b) 1. (iii), 2. (i), 3. (iv), 4. (ii).
(c) 1. (i), 2. (iii), 3. (ii), 4. (iv).
(d) 1. (iii), 2. (iv), 3. (ii), 4. (i).
Answer:
(b) 1. (iii), 2. (i), 3. (iv), 4. (ii).

Question 2.
If a plant is provided with all mineral nutrients but, Mn concentration is increased, what will be the deficiency?
(a) Mn prevent the uptake of Fe, Mg but not Ca
(b) Mn increase the uptake of Fe, Mg and Ca
(c) Only increase the uptake of Ca
(d) Prevent the uptake Fe, Mg, and Ca
Answer:
(a) Mn prevent the uptake of Fe, Mg but not Ca

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 3.
The element which is not remobilized?
(a) Phosphorus
(b) Potassium
(c) Calcium
(d) Nitrogen
Answer:
(c) Calcium

Question 4.
Match the correct combination.

Minerals

Role

(a) Molybdenum 1. Chlorophyll
(b) Zinc 2. Methionine
(c) Magnesium 3. Auxin
(d) Sulphur 4. Nitrogenase

(a) A – 1, B – 3, C – 4, D – 2
(b) A – 2, B – 1, C – 3, D – 4
(c) A – 4, B – 3, C – 1, D – 2
(d) A – 4, B – 2, C – 1, D – 3
Answer:
(c) A – 4, B – 3, C – 1, D – 2

Question 5.
Identify the correct statement:
(i) Sulphur is essential for amino acids Cystine and Methionine
(ii) Low level of N, K, S and Mo affect the cell division
(iii) Non – leguminous plant Alnus which contain bacterium Frankia
(iv) Denitrification carried out by nitrosomonas and nitrobacter.

(a) (i), (ii) are correct
(b) (i), (ii), (iii) are correct
(c) I only correct
(d) all are correct
Answer:
(b) (i), (ii), (iii) are correct

Question 6.
The nitrogen is present in the atmosphere in huge amount but higher plants fail to utilize it. Why?
Answer:
The higher plants do not have the association of bacteria or fungi, which are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen.

Question 7.
Why is that in certain plants deficiency symptoms appear first in younger parts of the plants while in others, they do so in mature organs?
Answer:
In certain plants, the deficiency symptom appears first in the younger part of the plant, due to the immobile nature of certain minerals like calcium, sulphur, iron, boron and copper.

Question 8.
Plant A in a nutrient medium shows whiptail disease plant B in a nutrient medium shows a little leaf disease. Identify mineral deficiency of plant A and B?
Answer:
Mineral deficiency of plant A and B:

  1. Plant A is deficient of the mineral molybdenum (Mo).
  2. Plant B is deficient of the mineral zinc (Zn).

Question 9.
Write the role of nitrogenase enzyme in nitrogen fixation?
Answer:
The role of nitrogenase enzyme in nitrogen fixation:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 2

Question 10.
Explain the insectivorous mode of nutrition in angiosperms?
Answer:
Plants which are growing in nitrogen deficient areas develop insectivorous habit to resolve nitrogen deficiency.
(i) Nepenthes (Pitcher plant): Pitcher is a modified leaf and contains digestive enzymes. Rim of the pitcher is provided with nectar glands and acts as an attractive lid. When insect is trapped, proteolytic enzymes will digest the insect.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 3

(ii) Drosera (Sundew): It consists of long club shaped tentacles which secrete sticky digestive fluid which looks like a sundew.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 4

(iii) Utricularia (Bladder wort): Submerged plant in which leaf is modified into a bladder to collect insect in water.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 5

(iv) Dionaea (Venus fly trap): Leaf of this plant modified into a colourful trap. Two folds of lamina consist of sensitive trigger hairs and when insects touch the hairs it will close.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 6

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Mineral Nutrition Additional Questions & Answers

I. Choose the correct answer (1 Mark)
Question 1.
Plants naturally obtain nutrients from:
(a) atmosphere
(b) water
(c) soil
(d) all of these
Answer:
(d) all of these

Question 2.
Which of the following are included under micro nutrients:
(a) sodium, carbon and hydrogen
(b) magnesium, nitrogen and silicon
(c) sodium, cobalt and selenium
(d) calcium, sulphur and potassium
Answer:
(c) sodium, cobalt and selenium

Question 3.
Who coined the term ‘Hydroponics’:
(a) Julius Von Sachs
(b) William Frederick Goerick
(c) Liebig
(d) Wood word
Answer:
(b) William Frederick Goerick

Question 4.
Selenium is essential for plants:
(a) to prevent water lodging
(b) to enhance growth
(c) to resist drought
(d) to prevent transpiration
Answer:
(a) to prevent water lodging

Question 5.
Actively mobile minerals are:
(a) nitrogen and phosphorus
(b) iron and manganese
(c) sodium and cobalt
(d) silicon and selenium
Answer:
(a) nitrogen and phosphorus

Question 6.
Copper shows deficiency symptoms first that appear in young leaves due to:
(a) less active movement of minerals to younger leaves
(b) active movement of minerals
(c) the immobile nature of mineral
(d) none of the above
Answer:
(c) the immobile nature of mineral

Question 7.
Molybdenum is essential for the reaction of:
(a) hydrolase enzyme
(b) nitrogenase enzyme
(c) carboxylase enzyme
(d) dehydrogenase enzyme
Answer:
(b) nitrogenase enzyme

Question 8.
Match the following:

A. Magnesium (i) dehydrogenase
B. Nickel (ii) ion exchange
C. Zinc (iii) chlorophyll
D. Potassium (iv) urease

(a) A – (ii); B – (i); C – (iv); D – (iii)
(b) A – (iii); B – (ii); C – (i); D – (iv)
(c) A – (ii); B – (iv); C – (i); D – (iii)
(d) A – (iii); B – (iv); C – (i); D – (ii)
Answer:
(d) A – (iii); B – (iv); C – (i); D – (ii)

Question 9.
Nitrogen is the essential component of:
(a) carbohydrate
(b) fatty acids
(c) protein
(d) none of these
Answer:
(c) protein

Question 10.
Which of the element is involved in the synthesis of DNA and RNA:
(a) calcium
(b) magnesium
(c) sulphuric
(d) potassium
Answer:
(b) magnesium

Question 11.
The deficiency of magnesium is the plant, causes:
(a) necrosis
(b) interveinal chlorosis
(c) sand drown of tobacco
(d) all the above
Answer:
(d) all the above

Question 12.
Sulphur is an essential components of amino acids like:
(a) histidine, leucine and aspartic acid
(b) valene, alkaline and glycine
(c) cystine, cysteine and methionine
(d) none of the above
Answer:
(c) cystine, cysteine and methionine

Question 13.
Indicate the correct statements:
(i) Iron is the essential element for the synthesis of chlorophyll and carotenoid
(ii) Iron is the activator of carboxylene enzyme
(iii) Iton is the component of cytochrome
(iv) lvon is the component of plastocyanin

(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (ii) and (iv)
(c) (ii) and (iii)
(d) (i) and (iii)
Answer:
(d) (i) and (iii)

Question 14.
Khaira disease of rice is caused by:
(a) deficiency of boron
(b) deficiency of zinc
(c) deficiency of iron
(d) deficiency of all the three
Answer:
(b) deficiency of zinc

Question 15.
Match the following:

A. Marginal chlorosis (i) nitrogen
B. Anthocyanin formation (ii) zinc
C. Hooked leaf tip (iii) potassium
D. Little leaf (iv) calcium

(a) A – (ii); B – (iii); C – (i); D – (iv)
(b) A – (iii), B – (ii); C – (iv); D – (i)
(c) A – (iii); B – (i); C – (iv); D – (ii)
(d) A – (iv); B – (iii); C – (i); D – (ii)
Answer:
(c) A – (iii); B – (i); C – (iv); D – (ii)

Question 16.
Increased concentration of manganese in plants will prevent the uptake of:
(a) calcium and potassium
(b) sodium and potassium
(c) boron and silicon
(d) iron and magnesium
Answer:
(d) iron and magnesium

Question 17.
Which of the statement is not correct?
(a) Aluminium toxicity causes the appearance of brown spots in the leaves.
(b) Aluminium toxicity causes the precipitation of nucleic acid.
(c) Aluminium toxicity inhibits ATPase activity
(d) Aluminium toxicity inhibits cell division.
Answer:
(a) Aluminium toxicity causes the appearance of brown spots in the leaves.

Question 18.
The techniques of Aeroponics was developed by:
(a) Goerick
(b) Amon and Hoagland
(c) Soifer Hillel and David Durger
(d) Von Sachs
Answer:
(c) Soifer Hillel and David Durger

Question 19.
Nitrogen occurs in atmosphere in the form of N2, two nitrogen atoms joined together by strong:
(a) di – covalent bond
(b) triple covalent bond
(c) non – valent bond
(d) none of these
Answer:
(b) triple covalent bond

Question 20.
The process of converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia is termed as:
(a) nitrogen cycle
(b) nitrification
(c) nitrogen fixation
(d) ammonification
Answer:
(c) nitrogen fixation

Question 21.
Find out the odd organism:
(a) Rhizobium
(b) Cyanobacteria
(c) Azolla
(d) Pistia
Answer:
(d) Pistia

Question 22.
The legume plants secretes phenolics to attract:
(a) Azolla
(b) Rhizobium
(c) Nitrosomonas
(d) Streptococcus
Answer:
(b) Rhizobium

Question 23.
Which are the organisms help in nitrogen fixation of lichens:
(a) Anabaena and Nostoc
(b) Anabaena alone
(c) Nostoc alone
(d) Anabaena azollae
Answer:
(a) Anabaena and Nostoc

Question 24.
Nitrogenase enzyme is active:
(a) only in aerobic condition
(b) only in anaerobic condition
(c) both in aerobic and anaerobic condition
(d) only in toxic condition
Answer:
(b) only in anaerobic condition

Question 25.
Ammonia (NH3+) is converted into nitrite (NO2) by a bacterium called:
(a) Nitrobacter bacterium
(b) Rhizobium
(c) Anabaena azollae
(d) Nitrosomonas
Answer:
(d) Nitrosomonas

Question 26.
Decomposition of organic nitrogen (proteins and amino acids) from dead plants and animals into ammonia is called:
(a) nitrification
(b) ammonification
(c) nitrogen fixation
(d) denitrification
Answer:
(b) ammonification

Question 27.
The bacteria involved in the denitrification process are:
(a) E.coli and Anabaena
(b) Streptococcus and Bacillus vulgaris
(c) Pseudomonas and Thiobacillus
(d) none of the above
Answer:
(c) Pseudomonas and Thiobacillus

Question 28.
In the process of ammonium assimilation:
(a) Ammonia is converted into nitrites
(b) Ammonia is converted into atmospheric nitrogen
(c) Ammonia is converted into ammonium ions
(d) Ammonia is converted into amino acids
Answer:
(d) Ammonia is converted into amino acids

Question 29.
The transfer of amino group (NH2) from glutamic acid to keto group of keto acid is termed as:
(a) Transamination
(b) Hydrogenation
(c) Nitrification
(d) Denitrification
Answer:
(a) Transamination

Question 30.
Monotrapa (Indian pipe) absorbs nutrients through:
(a) Rhizobium association
(b) mycorrhizal association
(c) microbial association
(d) animal association
Answer:
(b) mycorrhizal association

Question 31.
Cuscuta is a:
(a) partial parasite
(b) total root parasite
(c) obligate stem parasite
(d) partial stem parasite
Answer:
(c) obligate stem parasite

Question 32.
Indicate the correct statement:
(a) Loranthus grows on banana and coconut
(b) Loranthus grows on fig and mango trees
(c) Balanophora is a stem parasite
(d) Viscum is a root parasite
Answer:
(b) Loranthus grows on fig and mango trees

Question 33.
The association of mycorrhizae with higher plants is termed as:
(a) Parasitism
(b) Mutualism
(c) Symbiosis
(d) Saprophytic
Answer:
(c) Symbiosis

Question 34.
In Utricularia, the bladder is a modified form of:
(a) leaf
(b) stem
(c) tentacle
(d) lamina
Answer:
(a) leaf

Question 35.
Lichens are the indicators of:
(a) carbon monoxide
(b) nitrogen oxide
(c) sulphur di oxide
(d) hydrogen sulphide
Answer:
(c) sulphur di oxide

II. Answer the following (2 Marks)

Question 1.
Define micro nutrients of plants.
Answer:
Essential minerals which are required in less concentration called are as Micro nutrients.

Question 2.
Mention any two actively mobile minerals.
Answer:
Nitrogen and Phosphorus.

Question 3.
What is the role of molybdenum in the conversion of nitrogen into ammonia?
Answer:
Molybdenum (Mo) is essential for nitrogenase enzyme during reduction of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia.

Question 4.
What is the role of potassium on osmotic potential of the cell?
Answer:
Potassium (K) plays a key role in maintaining osmotic potential of the cell. The absorption of water, movement of stomata and turgidity are due to osmotic potential.

Question 5.
What are the deficiency symptoms of nitrogen?
Answer:
Chlorosis, stunted growth, anthocyanin formation.

Question 6.
Explain the role of sulphur in plant biochemistry.
Answer:
Essential component of amino acids like cystine, cysteine and methionine, constituent of coenzyme A, Vitamins like biotin and thiamine, constituent of proteins and ferredoxin plants utilise sulphur as sulphate (SO4) ions.

Question 7.
Define the term Siderophores.
Answer:
Siderophores (iron carriers) are iron chelating agents produced by bacteria. They are used to chelate ferric iron (Fe3+) from environment and host.

Question 8.
List out any two iron deficiency symptoms in plants.
Answer:
Interveinal chlorosis, formation of short and slender stalk and inhibition of chlorophyll formation.

Question 9.
What is the role of Boron in plant physiology.
Answer:
Translocation of carbohydrates, uptake and utilisation of Ca++, pollen germination, nitrogen metabolism, fat metabolism, cell elongation and differentiation. It is absorbed as borate BO3-  ions.

Question 10.
Write down the deficiency symptoms of molybdenum in plants.
Answer:
Chlorosis, necrosis, delayed flowering, retarded growth and whip tail disease of cauliflower.

Question 11.
Explain briefly about aluminium toxicity on plants.
Answer:
Aluminium toxicity causes precipitation of nucleic acid, inhibition of ATPase, inhibition of cell division and binding of plasma membrane with Calmodulin.

Question 12.
Define Aeroponics.
Answer:
It is a system where roots are suspended in air and nutrients are sprayed over the roots by a motor driven rotor.

Question 13.
Define nitrogen fixation.
Answer:
The process of converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia is termed as nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen fixation can occur by two methods:

  1. Biological
  2. Non – Biological.

Question 14.
Mention any two ways of non – biological nitrogen fixation.
Answer:
Two ways of non – biological nitrogen fixation:

  1. Nitrogen fixation by chemical process in industry.
  2. Natural electrical discharge during lightening fixes atmospheric nitrogen.

Question 15.
Match the following.

A. Lichens (i) Anabaena Azolla
B. Anthoceros (ii) Frankia
C. Azolla (iii) Anabaena and Nostoc
D. Casuarina (iv) Nostoc

Answer:
A – (iii), B – (iv), C – (i), D – (ii).

Question 16.
Define the term Nitrate assimilation.
Answer:
The process by which nitrate is reduced to – ammonia is called nitrate assimilation and occurs during nitrogen cycle.

Question 17.
Explain.the term Transamination.
Answer:
Transfer of amino group (NH3+) from glutamic acid glutamate to keto group of keto acid. Glutamic acid is the main amino acid from which other amino acids are synthesised by transamination.

Question 18.
Explain briefly about total stem parasite.
Answer:
The leafless stem twine around the host and produce haustoria. eg: Cuscuta (Dodder), a rootless plant growing on Zizyphus, Citrus and so on.

Question 19.
Give two examples of symbiotic mode of nutrition.
Answer:
Two examples of symbiotic mode of nutrition:

  1. Lichens: It is a mutual association of Algae and Fungi. Algae prepares food and fungi absorbs water and provides thallus structure.
  2. Mycorrhizae: Fungi associated with roots of higher plants including Gymriosperms. eg: Pinus.

Question 20.
Explain briefly about insectivorous mode of nutrition.
Answer:
Plants which are growing in nitrogen deficient areas develop insectivorous habit to resolve nitrogen deficiency.

III. Answer the following (3 Marks)

Question 1.
What are the criteria required for essential minerals in plants?
Answer:
The criteria required for essential minerals in plants:

  1. Elements necessary for growth and development.
  2. They should have direct role in the metabolism of the plant.
  3. It cannot be replaced by other elements.
  4. Deficiency makes the plants impossible to complete their vegetative and reproductive phase.

Question 2.
Explain the unclassified minerals required for plants.
Answer:
Minerals like Sodium,Silicon, Cobalt and Selenium are not included in the list of essential nutrients but are required by some plants, these minerals are placed in the list of unclassified minerals. These minerals play specific roles for example, Silicon is essential for pest resistance, prevent water lodging and aids cell wall formation in Equisetaceae (Equisetum), Cyperaceae and Gramineae.

Question 3.
Distinguish between macro and micro nutrients?
Answer:
Macro nutrients:

  • Excess than 10 mmole Kg-1 in tissue concentration or 0.1 to 10 mg per gram of dry weight.
  • eg: C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S.

Micro nutrients:

  • Less than 10 mmole Kg-1 in tissue concentration or equal or less than 0.1 mg per gram of dry weight.
  •  eg: Fe, Mn, Cu, Mo, Zn, B, Cl and Ni.

Question 4.
Explain briefly the functions and deficiency symptoms of potassium.
Answer:
Functions: Maintains turgidity and osmotic potential of the cell, opening and closure of stomata, phloem translocation, stimulate activity of enzymes, anion and cation balance by ion – exchange. It is absorbed as K+ ions. Deficiency symptoms: Marginal chlorosis, necrosis, low cambial activity, loss of apical dominance, lodging in cereals and curled leaf margin.

Question 5.
What is meant by Chelating agents? Explain the role of EDTA as chemical chelating agent.
Answer:
Plants which are growing in alkaline soil when supplied with all nutrients including iron will show iron deficiency. To rectify this, we have to make iron into a soluble complex by adding a chelating agent like EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid) to form Fe – EDTA.

Question 6.
Explain the term critical concentration of minerals.
Answer:
To increase the productivity and also to avoid mineral toxicity knowledge of critical concentration is essential. Mineral nutrients lesser than . critical concentration cause deficiency symptoms. Increase of mineral nutrients more than the normal concentration causes toxicity. A concentration, at which 10% of the dry weight of tissue is reduced, is considered as toxic critical concentration.

Question 7.
Describe the competitive behaviour of iron and manganese.
Answer:
Iron and Manganese exhibit competitive behaviour. Deficiency of Fe and Mn shows similar symptoms. Iron toxicity will affect absorption of manganese. The possible reason for iron toxicity is excess usage of chelated iron in addition with increased acidity of soil (pH less than 5.8) Iron and manganese toxicity will be solved by using fertilizer with balanced ratio of Fe and Mn.

Question 8.
Who are people responsible for developing hydroponics?
Answer:
Hydroponics or Soil less culture: Von Sachs developed a method of growing plants in nutrient solution. The commonly used nutrient solutions are Knop solution (1865) and Amon and Hoagland Solution (1940). Later the term Hydroponics was coined by Goerick (1940) and he also introduced commercial techniques for hydroponics. In hydroponics roots are immersed in the solution containing nutrients and air is supplied with help of tube.

Question 9.
List out the free living bacteria and fungi responsible for non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
Answer:
Free living bacteria and fungi also fix atmospheric nitrogen.

Aerobic Azotobacter, Beijerneckia and Derxia
Anaerobic Clostridium
Photosynthetic Chlorobium and Rhodospirillum
Chemosynthetic Disulfovibrio
Free living fungi Yeast and Pullularia
Cyanobacteria Nostoc, Anabaena and Oscillatoria.

Question 10.
Define the term Ammonification.
Answer:
Decomposition of organic nitrogen (proteins and amino acids) from dead plants and animals into ammonia is called ammonification. Organisim involved in this process are Bacillus ramosus and Bacillus vulgaris.

Question 11.
Explain briefly Catalytic amination.
Answer:
Glutamate amino acid combines with ammonia to form the amide glutamine.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 8
Glutamine reacts with a ketoglutaric acid to form two molecules of glutamate.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 9
(GOGAT – Glutamine – 2 – Oxoglutarate aminotransferase)

Question 12.
Compare the partial stem parasite and partial root parasite.
Answer:
The partial stem parasite and partial root parasite:

  1. Partial Stem Parasite: eg: Loranthus and Viscum (Mistletoe) Loranthus grows on fig and mango trees and absorb water and minerals from xylem.
  2. Partial root parasite: eg: Santalum album (Sandal wood tree) in its juvenile stage produces haustoria which grows on roots of many plants.

Question 13.
Explain the mode of nutrition in pitcher plant.
Answer:
Pitcher is a modified leaf and contains digestive enzymes. Rim of the pitcher is provided with nectar glands and acts as an attractive lid. When insect is trapped proteolytic enzymes will digest the insect.

Question 14.
What is meant by saprophytic mode of nutrition?
Answer:
Saprophytes derive nutrients from dead and decaying matter. Bacteria and fungus are main saprophytic organisms. Some angiosperms also follow saprophytic mode of nutrition. eg: Neottia. Roots of Neottia (Bird’s Nest Orchid) associate with mycorrhizae and absorb nutrients as a saprophyte. Monotropa (Indian Pipe) grow on humus rich soil found in thick forests. It absorbs nutrient through mycorrhizal association.

Question 15.
Describe briefly the method of nitrogen fixation in leguminous plants.
Answer:
Rhizobium bacterium is found in leguminous plants and fix atmospheric nitrogen. This kind of symbiotic association is beneficial for both the bacterium and plant. Root nodules are formed due to bacterial infection. Rhizobium enters into the-host cell and proliferates, it remains separated from the host cytoplasm by a membrane.

IV. Answer the following (5 Marks)

Question 1.
Write an essay on the functions and deficiency symptoms of macro nutrients.
Answer:
Macronutrients, their functions, their mode of absorption, deficiency symptoms and deficiency diseases are discussed here:
(i) Nitrogen (N): It is required by the plants in greatest amount. It is an essential component of proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids, vitamins, hormones, alkaloids, chlorophyll and cytochrome. It is absorbed by the plants as nitrates (NO3).

Deficiency symptoms: Chlorosis, stunted growth, anthocyanin formation.

(ii) Phosphorus (P): Constituent of cell membrane, proteins, nucleic acids, ATP, NADP, phytin and sugar phosphate. It is absorbed as H2PO4+ and HPO4 ions.

Deficiency symptoms: Stunted growth, anthocyanin formation, necrosis, inhibition of cambial activity, affect root growth and fruit ripening.

(iii) Potassium (K): Maintains turgidity and osmotic potential of the cell, opening and closure of stomata, phloem translocation, stimulate activity of enzymes, anion and cation balance by ion – exchange. It is absorbed as K+ ions.

Deficiency symptoms: Marginal chlorosis, necrosis, low cambial activity, loss of apical dominance, lodging in cereals and curled leaf margin.

(iv) Calcium (Ca): It is involved in synthesis of calcium pectate in middle lamella, mitotic spindle formation, mitotic cell division, permeability of cell membrane, lipid metabolism, activation of phospholipase, ATPase, amylase and activator of adenyl kinase. It is absorbed as Ca2+ exchangeable ions.

Deficiency symptoms: Chlorosis, necrosis, stunted growth, premature fall of leaves and flowers, inhibit seed formation, Black heart of Celery, Hooked leaf tip in Sugar beet, Musa and Tomato.

(v) Magnesium (Mg): It is a constituent of chlorophyll, activator of enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism (RUBP Carboxylase and PEP Carboxylase) and involved in the synthesis of DNA and RNA. It is essential for binding of ribosomal sub units. It is absorbed as Mg2+ ions.

Deficiency symptoms: litter veinal chlorosis, necrosis, anthocyanin (purple) formation and Sand drown of tobacco.

(vi) Sulphur (S): Essential component of amino acids like cystine, cysteine and methionine, constituent of coenzyme A, Vitamins like biotin and thiamine, constituent of proteins and ferredoxin. plants utilise sulphur as sulphate (SO4) ions.

Deficiency symptoms: Chlorosis, anthocyanin formation, stunted growth, rolling of leaf tip and reduced nodulation in legumes.

Question 2.
Describe the role of micro nutrients on plant health and function.
Answer:
Micronutrients even though required in trace amounts are essential for the metabolism of plants. They play key roles in many plants. eg: Boron is essential for translocation of sugars, molybdenum is involved in nitrogen metabolism and zinc is needed for biosynthesis of auxin. Here, we will study about the role of micro nutrients, their functions, their mode of absorption, deficiency symptoms and deficiency diseases.

(i) Iron (Fe): Iron is required lesser than macronutrient and larger than micronutrients, hence, it can be placed in any one of the groups. Iron is an essential element for the synthesis of chlorophyll and carotenoids. It is the component of cytochrome, ferredoxin, flavoprotein, formation of chlorophyll, porphyrin, activation of catalase, peroxidase enzymes. It is absorbed as ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) ions. Mostly fruit trees are sensitive to iron.

Deficiency: Interveinal Chlorosis, formation of short and slender stalk and inhibition of chlorophyll formation.

(ii) Manganese (Mn): Activator of Carboxylases, oxidases, dehydrogenases and kinases, involved in splitting of water to liberate oxygen (photolysis). It is absorbed as manganous (Mn2+) ions.

Deficiency: Interveinal chlorosis, grey spot on oats leaves and poor root system.

(iii) Copper (Cu): Constituent of plastocyanin, component of phenolases, tyrosinase, enzymes involved in redox reactions, synthesis of ascorbic acid, maintains carbohydrate and nitrogen balance, part of oxidase and cytochrome oxidase. It is absorbed as cupric (Cu2+) ions,

Deficiency: Die back of citrus, Reclamation disease of cereals and legumes, chlorosis, necrosis and Exanthema in Citrus.

(iv) Zinc (Zn): Essential for the synthesis of Indole acetic acid (Auxin) activator of carboxylases, alcohol dehydrogenase, lactic dehydrogenase, glutamic acid dehydrogenase, carboxy peptidases and tryptophan synthetase. It is absorbed as Zn2+ ions.

Deficiency: Little leaf and mottle leaf due to deficiency of auxin, Inter veinal chlorosis, stunted growth, necrosis and Khaira disease of rice.

(v) Boron (B): Translocation of carbohydrates, uptake and utilisation of Ca++, pollen germination, nitrogen metabolism, fat metabolism, cell elongation and differentiation. It is absorbed as borate BO3- ions.

Deficiency: Death of root and shoot tips, premature fall of flowers and fruits, brown heart of beet root, internal cork of apple and fruit cracks.

(vi) Molybdenum (Mo): Component of nitrogenase, nitrate reductase, involved in nitrogen metabolism, and nitrogen fixation. It is absorbed as molybdate (Mo2+) ions.

Deficiency: Chlorosis, necrosis, delayed flowering, retarded growth and whip tail disease of cauliflower.

(vii) Chlorine (Cl): It is involved in Anion – Cation balance, cell division, photolysis of water. It is absorbed as Cl ions.
Deficiency: Wilting of leaf tips.

(viii) Nickel (Ni): Cofactor for enzyme urease and hydrogenase.

Deficiency: Necrosis of leaf tips.

Question 3.
Give the details of minerals and their deficiency symptoms.
Answer:
Name of the deficiency disease and symptoms:

  1. Chlorosis (Overall)
    • (a) Interveinal chlorosis
    • (b) Marginal chlorosis
  2. Necrosis (Death of the tissue)
  3. Stunted growth
  4. Anthocyanin formation
  5. Delayed flowering
  6. Die back of shoot, Reclamation disease, Exanthema in citrus (gums on bark)
  7. Hooked leaf tip
  8. Little Leaf
  9. Brown heart of turnip and Internal cork of apple
  10. Whiptail of cauliflower and cabbage
  11. Curled leaf margin

Deficiency minerals:

  1. Nitrogen, Potassium, Magnesium, Sulphur, Iron, Manganese, Zinc and Molybdenum. Magnesium, Iron, Manganese and Zinc Potassium
  2. Magnesium, Potassium, Calcium, Zinc, Molybdenum and Copper.
  3. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Calcium, Potassium and Sulphur.
  4. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sulphur
  5. Nitrogen, Sulphur and Molybdenum
  6. Copper
  7. Calcium
  8. Zinc
  9. Boron
  10. Molybdenum
  11. Potassium

Question 4.
Give the schematic diagram of nitrogen cycle.
Answer:
The schematic diagram of nitrogen cycle:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 7

Question 5.
Describe the modes of biological nitrogen fixation.
Answer:
Symbiotic bacterium like Rhizobium fixes atmospheric nitrogen. Cyanobacteria found in Lichens, Anthoceros, Azolla and coralloid roots of Cycas also fix nitrogen. Non – symbiotic (free living bacteria) like Clostridium also fix nitrogen. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation:
1. Nitrogen fixation with nodulation: Rhizobium bacterium is found in leguminous plants and fix atmospheric nitrogen. This kind of symbiotic association is beneficial for both the bacterium and plant. Root nodules are formed due to bacterial infection. Rhizobium enters into the host cell and proliferates, it remains separated from the host cytoplasm by a membrane.

2. Stages of Root nodule formation:

  • Legume plants secretes phenolics which attracts Rhizobium.
  • Rhizobium reaches the rhizosphere and enters into the root hair, infects the root hair and leads to curling of root hairs.
  • Infection thread grows inwards and separates the infected tissue from normal tissue.
  • A membrane bound bacterium is formed inside the nodule and is called bacteroid.
  • Cytokinin from bacteria and auxin from host plant promotes cell division and leads to nodule formation

3. Non – Legume: Alnus and Casuarina contain the bacterium Frankia Psychotria contains the bacterium Klebsiella.
Nitrogen fixation without nodulation. The following plants and prokaryotes are involved in nitrogen fixation:

  • Lichens – Anabaena and Nostoc
  • Anthoceros – Nostoc
  • Azolla – Anabaena azollae
  • Cycas – Anabaena and Nostoc.

Solution To Activity
Textbook Page No: 95

Question 1.
Collect leaves showing mineral deficiency. Tabulate the symptoms like Marginal Chlorosis, Interveinal Chlorosis, Necrotic leaves, Anthocyanin formation in leaf, Little leaf and Hooked leaf. (Discuss with your teacher about the deficiency of minerals)
Answer:
Symptoms:

  1. Marginal Chlorosis
  2. interveinal Chlorosis
  3. Necrotic leaves
  4. Anthocyanin formation in leaves
  5. Little leaf
  6. Hooked leaf

Minerals:

  1. Potassium (K)
  2. Magnesium (Mg)
  3. Nickel (Ni)
  4. Phosphorus (P)
  5. Zinc (Zn)
  6. Calcium (Ca)

Textbook Page No: 98

Question 1.
Preparation of Solution Culture to find out Mineral Deficiency
1. Take a glass jar or polythene bottle and cover with black paper (to prevent algal growth and roots reacting with light).
2. Add nutrient solution.
3. Fix a plant with the help of split cork.
4. Fix a tube for aeration.
5. Observe the growth by adding specific minerals.
Answer:
The deficiency of minerals like nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, potassium and sulphur cause stunted growth in plants.

Textbook Page No: 99

Question 1.
Collect roots of legumes with root nodules.
• Take cross section of the root nodule.
• Observe under microscope. Discuss your observations with your teacher.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 1

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