Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 2 Central Government

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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 2 Central Government

Central Government Textual Exercise

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
The Constitutional Head of the Union is …………..
(a) The President
(b) The Chief Justice
(c) The Prime Minister
(d) Council of Ministers
Answer:
(a) The President

Question 2.
Who is the real executive in a Parliamentary type of-government?
(a) Army
(b) The Prime Minister
(c) The President
(d) Judiciary
Answer:
(b) The Prime Minister

Question 3.
Who among the following decides whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not?
(a) President
(b) Attorney General
(c) Parliamentary Affairs Minister
(d) Speaker of Lok Sabha
Answer:
(d) Speaker of Lok Sabha

Question 4.
The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the:
(a) The President
(b) Lok Sabha
(c) The Prime Minister
(d) Rajya Sabha
Answer:
(b) Lok Sabha

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 2 Central Government

Question 5.
The Joint sittings of Indian Parliament for transacting legislative business are presided over by?
(a) Senior most member of Parliament
(b) Speaker of the Lok Sabha
(c) The President of India
(d) The Chairman of the Rajya Sabha
Answer:
(b) Speaker of the Lok Sabha

Question 6.
What is minimum age laid down for a candidate to seek election to the Lok Sabha?
(a) 18 years
(b) 21 years
(c) 25 years
(d) 30 years
Answer:
(c) 25 years

Question 7.
The authority to alter the boundaries of state in India rest with?
(a) The President
(b) The Prime Minister
(c) State Government
(d) Parliament
Answer:
(d) Parliament

Question 8.
Under which Article the President is vested with the power to proclaim Financial Emergency
(a) Article 352
(b) Article 360
(c) Article 356
(d) Article 365
Answer:
(b) Article 360

Question 9.
The Chief Justice and other Judges of the Supreme court are appointed by …………….
(a) The President
(b) The Attorney General
(c) The Governor
(d) The Prime Minister
Answer:
(a) The President

Question 10.
Dispute between States of India comes to the Supreme Court under:
(a) Appellate Jurisdiction
(b) Original Jurisdiction
(c) Advisory Jurisdiction
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Original Jurisdiction

Question 11.
If you are elected as the President of India, which of the following decision can you take on your own?
(a) Nominate the leaders of your choice to the council of minister
(b) Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses
(c) Select the person you like as Prime Minister
(d) Dismiss a Prime Minister who has a majority in the Lok Sabha
Answer:
(b) Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses

II. Fill in the Blanks.

1. ………….. Bill cannot be introduced in the Parliament without President’s approval.
2. ………….. is the leader of the nation and chief spokesperson of the country.
3. ………….. is the Ex-officio Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha.
4. The President generally nominates two members belonging to the …………. community to the Lok Sabha.
5. ……………. has the right to speak and to take part in the proceedings of both Houses of the Parliament.
6. The Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court hold the office up to the age of ………….. years.
7. ………….. is the Guardian of the Constitution.
8. At present, the Supreme Court consists of ………….. judges including the Chief Justice.
Answers:
1. Money
2. Prime Minister
3. Vice-President
4. Anglo-Indian
5. Attorney General of India
6. 65
7. Supreme Court
8. 28

III. Choose the Correct Statement.

Question 1.
(i) Total members of the Rajya Sabha is 250.
(ii) The 12 nominated members shall be chosen by the President from amongst persons experience in the field of literature, science, art, or social service.
(iii) The Members of the Rajya Sabha should not be less than 30 years of age.
(iv) The members of the Rajya Sabha are directly elected by the peoples.
(a) ii and iv are correct
(b) iii and iv are correct
(c) i and iv are correct
(d) i, ii and iii are correct
Answer:
(d) i, ii and iii are correct

Question 2.
(i) The Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court hold the office up to the age of 62 years.
(ii) Judiciary is the third organ of the government.
(iii) The cases involving fundamental rights come under the Appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
(iv) The law declared by Supreme Court is binding on all courts within the territory of India.
(a) ii and iv are correct
(b) iii and iv are correct
(c) i and iv are correct
(d) i, and ii are correct
Answer:
(a) ii and iv are correct

Question 3.
Assertion (A): The Rajya Sabha is a permanent house and it cannot be dissolved.
Reason (R): One third of the members of Rajya Sabha retire every two years, and new members are elected to fill the seats thus vacated.
(a) (A) is false but R is true
(b) (A) is false but (R) is true
(c) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for( A)
(d) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct reason for (A)
Answer:
(c) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct reason for (A)

IV. Match the Following.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 2 Central Government 1
Answer:
1. (c)
2. (d)
3. (a)
4. (e)
5. (b)

V. Answer the brief questions.

Question 1.
How is President of India elected?
Answer:
The President is elected by an electoral college with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote.

Question 2.
What are the different categories of Ministers at the Union level?
Answer:
The different categories of Ministers at the Union level are –

  1. Cabinet Ministers
  2. Ministers of States and
  3. Deputy Ministers

Question 3.
What is the qualification of Judges of the Supreme Court?
Answer:

  1. He must be a citizen of India.
  2. He should have worked as a judge of a High court for atleast 5 years.
  3. He should have worked as an advocate of High Court for atleast 10 years.
  4. He is in the opinion of the President a distinguished Jurist.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 2 Central Government

Question 4.
Write a short note on Speaker of the Lok Sabha?
Answer:
The office of the Speaker occupies an important position in our Parliamentary democracy. He presides over a joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament. He has the power to decide whether a Bill is Money Bill or an ordinary one. The Speaker continues to be in the office even if the Houses dissolved, till a new speaker is elected by the new’ Lok Sabha.

Question 5.
What is Money Bill?
Answer:

  1. Money Bill in general covers issue of . receipt and spending of money, borrowing by the Government, tax laws and expenditure of the Government and prevention of Black money etc.
  2. Money Bill can be introduced in the Parliament (the Lok Sabha) Lower House only.

Question 6.
List out any two special powers of the Attorney General of India?
Answer:
(i) The Attorney General of India has the right to speak and to take part in the proceedings of both Houses of the Parliament or their joint sitting and any committee of the Parliament of which he may be named as a member, but without a right to vote.

(ii) In the performance of his official duties, Attorney General of India has the right of audience ‘ in all Courts in the territory of India.

VI. Answer in detail.

Question 1.
Describe the powers and functions of the President of India.
Answer:
According to Article 53 of the Constitution the executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President which shall be exercised by him directly or through subordinates to him in accordance with Constitution.

Powers of the President: Executive power.

  1. Article 77 specifies that every executive action of the union shall be taken in the name of the President.
  2. He appoints Prime Minister and the other council of minister on the advice of the Prime Minister, distributing Port folios to them .Wide variety of appointments made by him include appointment of Governors of States, the Chief Justice and the other Judges of the Supreme Court and High courts, the Attorney General, the comptroller and Auditor General, the Chief Election Commissioner, the Chairman and other members of the Union Public Service Commission, Ambassadors and High commissioners to other countries.
  3. He appoints a commission to investigate into the conditions of SCs, STs and other backward classes.
  4. The President appoints the chiefs of defence forces – Army, Navy and Air Force.

Legislative power:

  1. After the General election (Election to the Lok Sabha) and also at the beginning of the first session each year the President inaugurates the session by addressing.
  2. The President has to summon the Parliament.
  3. All bills passed in the Parliament become “Laws of Acts” only after getting the assent of the President.
  4. Money bills cannot be introduced in the Lok Sabha without his approval.
  5. He has the power to dissolve the Lok Sabha before the expiry term of the House.
  6. He nominates 12 persons who are eminent in various fields to Rajya Sabha.
  7. He also nominates 2 persons from Anglo-Indian community to the Lok Sabha.

Financial Power:

  1. Money bill can be introduced in the Parliament only with his approval.
  2. Annual Budget is presented in the Parliament in the name of the President.
  3. Contingency Fund is at his disposal.
  4. He can make advances out of it to meet any unforeseen expenditure.
  5. He constitutes a finance commission after every five years for the distribution of revenue between Centre and the State.

Judicial Power:

  1. President has the power to grant pardon, reprieves, respites or remmission of punishment.
  2. He is not answerable to any court of law.
  3. But subjected to Impeachment.
  4. Military power: President is the Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces.
  5. He can declare war against a country or make peace.

Diplomatic powers:

  1. The President appoints Indian diplomats to other countries and receives foreign diplomats.
  2. All treaties and agreements with foreign states are entered into, in the name of the President.
  3. Emergency powers: President has empowered by the Parliament to proclaim emergency arose out of war or armed rebellion, Constitution failure in the state and a threat to financial stability.
  4. Being the First Citizen of India, he is the Constitutional Head and Nominal head of the country.

Question 2.
Explain the Jurisdiction and powers of the Supreme Court of India.
Answer:
The Supreme Court is the guardian of the constitution. He performs the following functions.
(i) Original Jurisdiction: The cases which are brought directly in the first instance to the Supreme Court come under original jurisdiction. These may be – (a) dispute between the government of India and one or more States, (b) dispute between two or more States and (c) the cases involving fundamental rights come under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

(ii) Appellate Jurisdiction: The Supreme Court is the final appellate Court in the country. It hears appeals against the decisions of High Court in “civil, criminal and constitutional” cases with a certificate from the High Court that it is fit to appeal in the Supreme Court.

(iii) Advisory Jurisdiction The Constitution confers on the President the power to refer to the Supreme Court any question of law or fact which in his opinion is of public importance

(iv) The Law declared by the Supreme Court is binding on all courts within the territory of India.
(v) The Supreme Court also enjoys the power of judicial review.

Question 3.
What are the duties and functions of Prime Minister of India?
Answer:
The leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha is appointed as the Prime Minister by the President.
The duties and functions of Prime Minister:

  1. The Prime Minister decides the rank of his ministers and distributes various departments.
  2. He decides the dates and the agenda of the meeting of the cabinet he presides.
  3. The Prime Minister is the Head of the Cabinet and the other ministers are his colleagues.
  4. The Prime Minister supervises the work of various ministers.
  5. He consults informally two or three of his senior colleagues when he does not convene a Cabinet meeting.
  6. Prime Minister should inform the affairs of the Union and proposals of legislation, all decisions of the council of ministers connecting to the government.
  7. He act as the link between die President and the Council of ministers.
  8. He is the leader of the nation and chief spokes person of the country.
  9. As the leader of the nation the Prime Minister represents our nation at all International conferences such as SAARC, Common Wealth and Summit of Non-aligned nations.

Question 4.
Critically examine the Powers and Functions of the Parliament.
Answer:

  1. The Parliament is the highest law making body in our country. It makes laws for the entire country.
  2. It provides a platform where public grievances are discussed and their solutions are made
  3. The Parliament is vested with powers to impeach the President and to remove judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, Chief Election Commissioner and Comptroller and Auditor-General of India in accordance with the procedure laid down in the Constitution.
  4. The Parliament exercises control over the executive by asking questions and supplementary questions, moving motions of adjournment, discussing and passing resolutions, discussing and pushing censure motion or vote of no-confidence.
  5. It has the power to change the boundaries of the States.

Question 5.
List out the functions of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
Functions of the Lok Sabha:

  1. Any bill can be introduced and passed in the Lok Sabha (including Money bill)
  2. It has the power in passing any bill for Constitutional Amendment.
  3. Lok Sabha member have the power to elect the President and the Vice President.
  4. It can participate in case of impeachment of the President and the judges of the Supreme Court.
  5. Motion of no confidence can only be introduced in Lok Sabha. If it is passed then the Prime Minister and the other council of ministers need to resign from their post.

Functions of Rajya Sabha:

  1. Any bill (except the money bill) needs to be approved by Rajya Sabha to get passed.
  2. If the bill is not approved for more than six months then President calls for a joint session of both the houses to resolve the dead lock.
  3. It has the same power like Lok Sabha for passing any bills for Constitutional Amendment.
  4. Together with the members of Lok Sabha and all the State Legislative Assemblies they elect the President and Vice President.
  5. It has the power in the impeachment procedure of the President and judges of the Supreme Court and High Court.
  6. Rajya Sabha can also create or abolish an All India service, and has the power to make a state list subject into National importance with two third majority to support it.

Central Government Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
The Council of Ministers is headed by the ……………….
(a) Prime Minister
(b) Speaker
(c) President
(d) Vice – President
Answer:
(a) Prime Minister

Question 2.
Our country has …………….. system of government.
(a) Aristocratic
(b) Monarchial
(c) Parliamentary
(d) Oligarchy
Answer:
(c) Parliamentary

Question 3.
Which are the two states of India where the President’s rule was imposed for maximum number of times?
(a) Kerala and Maharashtra
(b) Kerala and Punjab
(c) Punjab and Haryana
(d) Goa and Tamil Nadu
Answer:
(b) Kerala and Punjab

Question 4.
The President of India resides at …………….. in New Delhi.
(a) Raj Bhavan
(b) Sastri Bhavan
(c) Rashtrapathi Bhavan
(d) Vignyan Bhavan
Answer:
(c) Rashtrapathi Bhavan

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 2 Central Government

Question 5.
The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a term of ……………
(a) Six years
(b) Five Years
(c) Four Years
(d) Seven years
Answer:
(a) Six years

Question 6.
The …………….. occupies the second highest office in the country.
(a) Vice-President
(b) Prime Minister
(c) Chief Minister
(d) Cabinet Minister
Answer:
(a) Vice-President

Question 7.
Oath of the President is administered by ……………
(a) Vice President
(b) Lok Sabha Speaker
(c) Chief Justice of India
Answer:
(c) Chief Justice of India

Question 8.
The leader of the majority party in the …………….. is appointed by the President as the Prime Minister.
(a) Committee
(b) Rajya Sabha
(c) Lok Sabha
(d) Cabinet
Answer:
(c) Lok Sabha

Question 9.
Judges of Supreme Court is appointed by ……………
(a) Lok Sabha Speaker
(b) Vice President
(c) President
Answer:
(c) President

Question 10.
The first Prime Minister of India was ……………..
(a) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Thiru. Lai Bahadur Sastri
(c) Mrs Indira Gandhi
(d) Thiru Narendra Modi
Answer:
(a) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

II. Fill in the blanks.

1. The Lok Sabha can be dissolved by the ………….. before the expiry of its term on the advice of the Prime Minister.
2. The Rajya Sabha does not have any power to amend or reject the …………… Bill.
3. The salaries and allowances of the Prime Minister and the Ministers are determined by the ………………
4. The Supreme Court is the final ……………. court in the country.
5. The ………….. of India is the highest law officer in the country.
6. A joint meeting of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha is presided by ……………
7. The annual financial statement is caused to be laid before both Houses of Parliament by ……………
8. The Lower House of the Indian Parliament is called ……………….
9. The …………. is a permanent House and it can not be dissolved.
10. Presently the Lok Sabha consists of ………… members.
11. The Lok Sabha is presided over by the …………..
12. …………. is the third organ of the Government.
13. The ………….. is the final appellate court in the country.
14. There are ………….. different levels of court in our country.
15. President of India is elected by elected members of …………., ………….. and ………….
Answer:
1. President
2. Money
3. Parliament
4. Appellate
5. Attorney General
6. Speaker of Lok Sabha
7. President
8. The Lok Sabha
9. Rajya Sabha
10. 545 Members
11. Speaker
12. Judiciary
13. Supreme Court
14. Three
15. Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and State Assemblies

III. Choose the correct statement.

Question 1.
(i) The power of the judiciary to declare a law as unconstitutional is known as judicial review.
(ii) Our Constitution provides for a democratic form of Government.
(iii) All Bills passed by the Parliament become “Law of Acts” only after getting the assent of the President.
(iv) The leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha is appointed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as the Prime Minister
(a) i, ii and iv are correct
(b) ii and iv are correct
(c) i, ii and iii are correct
(d) i, iii and iv are correct
Answer:
(c) i, ii and iii are correct

Question 2.
(i) The Lok Sabha is the popular House of the Indian Parliament and contains elected representatives of the people.
(ii) At present, the Lok Sabha consists of 547 Members.
(iii) The Lok sabha is a permanent House and it cannot be dissolved.
(iv) The Lok Sabha can only introduce Money Bill
(a) i and ii are correct
(b) i, ii and iv are correct
(c) ii, iii and iv are correct
(d) i, and iv are correct
Answer:
(d) i, and iv are correct

IV. Match the following.

A.
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 2 Central Government 2
Answer:
1. (c)
2. (d)
3. (e)
4. (b)
5. (a)

B.
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 2 Central Government 3
Answer:
1. (b)
2. (d)
3. (e)
4. (a)
5. (c)

C.
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 2 Central Government 4
Answer:
1. (c)
2. (e)
3. (a)
4. (b)
5. (d)

V. True or False.

1. The Constitution of Independent India adopted the principle of Universal Adult Franchise.
2. The opposition parties play no role in the functioning of a Government.
3. Not a single seat is reserved in the Parliament for SCs and STs.
4. The total membership of the Lok Sabha is 500.
5. When the Parliament is in session, it begins with a question hour.
6. The Supreme Court is presided over by the Chief Justice of India.
7. Poor people can approach only the lower courts.
8. The judiciary acts as per the wishes of the Government.
9. The public interest litigation plays an important role in facilitating justice to all.
10. The civil cases usually begin with the lodging of a First Information Report (FIR) with
police who investigate the crime after which a case is filed in the court.
Answers:
1. True
2. False
3. False
4. False
5. True
6. True
7. False
8. False
9. True
10. False

VI. Answer in brief.

Question 1.
What does the Electoral College consist of?
Answer:
The Electoral College consists of the elected members of both the houses of the Parliament, the elected members of the states and elected members of National Capital Territory of Delhi and Puducherry.

Question 2.
What do you know about the term of the Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The Rajya Sabha is a permanent House. It means that it cannot be dissolved. The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a term of six years. One third of its members retire every two years and new members are elecied to till the seats. The Vice – President of India is the Ex- officio Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha.

Question 3.
Our Parliament is a “Bicameral Legislature”. How?
Answer:
If any legislature has two Houses the Upper House and the Lower House it is said to be Bicameral Legislature. Since our Parliament has two Houses namely Lok Sabha (House of the elected people) and the Rajya Sabha (House of the States) it is termed as “Bicameral Legislature”

Question 4.
What is the qualification of Attorney General of India?
(OR)
Who can be appointed as the Attorney General of India?
Answer:
One who wants to become the Attorney General of India must

  1. be a citizen of India
  2. have been a judge of some High Court for five years or an advocate of some High Court for 10 years or eminent jurist, in the opinion of the President.

Question 5.
How the members of Lok Sabha are elected?
Answer:

  1. The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people of the Constituencies on the basis of population.
  2. Universal Adult Franchise is followed while electing the members of the Lok Sabha.
  3. All Indian citizens above 18 years of age who are registered as voters will vote for their representatives.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 2 Central Government

Question 6.
What is Parliament?
Answer:
The Legislature is known as the Parliament. It consists of two houses, namely Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.

Question 7.
What does the Collegium consist of?
Answer:

  1. Collegium consists of four senior-most judges of the Supreme Court and 3 members of concerned High court with Chief Justice as Head.
  2. The appointment and transfer of the judges in Supreme Court and high courts is taken by Collegium.

Question 8.
How is the Vice-President of India elected?
Answer:
The Vice-President occupies the second highest office in the country. He is not elected directly by the people but by the method of indirect election. He is elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the member of both Houses of Parliament.

Question 9.
What are the three sessions of the Parliament?
Answer:
Parliament sessions should be held at least twice in a year.
The three sessions of the Parliament

  1. Budget session – From February to May
  2. Monsoon Session – From July to September
  3. Winter session – From November to December.

Question 10.
Name the different Parliament Sessions.
Answer:

  1. Budget Session from February to May
  2. Monsoon Session from July to September
  3. Winter Session from November to December

Question 11.
What do you mean by integrated Judiciary?
Answer:
An integrated Judiciary means a single judicial hierarchy for the whole country.

Question 12.
What do you mean by the executive?
Answer:
An executive is a group of people who work together to implement the laws made by Parliament.

Question 13.
Who is the leader of the ruling party in the Lok Sabha?
Answer:
The Prime Minister is the leader of the ruling party in the Lok Sabha.

Question 14.
Name the ministries which are housed in the North Block.
Answer:
The ministries in the housed in the North Block are The Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Home Affairs.

Question 15.
Who nominates the 12 members of the Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The President of India nominates the 12 members of the Rajya Sabha.

VII. Answer in detail.

Question 1.
Describe briefly the different categories of the ministers at the Union level.
Answer:
The ministers at the Union level are classified under three ranks:
(i) Cabinet Ministers:- The Cabinet is an informal body of senior ministers who form the nucleus of administration. All the important decisions of the Government are taken by the Cabinet, such as defence, finance, external affairs and home. The Cabinet recommends to the President to promulgate an ordinance. It is instrumental in moving amendments to the Constitution. These Finance Bills have their origin in the Cabinet and they are introduced in Lok Sabha with the President’s recommendations.

(ii) Ministers of State:- These ministers belong to the second category of ministers in the council. They are also in charge of ministries or departments but they do not participate in the meetings of the Cabinet unless invited to do so.

(iii) Deputy Ministers:- They are the lowest-ranked ministers in the Cabinet. They assist either the ministers of Cabinet or State in the performance of the duties entrusted to them.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Civics Solutions Chapter 2 Central Government

Question 2.
How the Vice President elected? What are the qualification needed to elect as Vice President?
Answer:

  1. He should be a citizen of India.
  2. He must have completed the age of thirty five years.
  3. He must not hold any office of profit under the Union, State or Local government.
  4. He should have the other qualifications required to become a member of the Rajya Sabha. Election and term of-the Vice-President is five years. His office may terminate earlier than the fixed term either by resignation, death or by removal.
  5. He is eligible for re-election.
  6. The Constitution does not provide a mechanism of succession to the office of the Vice President.
  7. The Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha can perform the duties of the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha (the vice president).

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