Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages

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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages

The Middle Ages Textual Exercise

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
……………….. was the old religion of Japan.
(a) Shinto
(b) Confucianism
(c) Taoism
(d) Animism
Answer:
(a) Shinto

Question 2.
…………. means great name/lord.
(a) Daimyo
(b) Shogun
(c) Fujiwara
(d) Tokugawa
Answer:
(a) Daimyo

Question 3.
The Arab General who conquered Spain was …………..
(a) Tariq
(b) Alaric
(c) Saladin
(d) Mohammad the Conqueror
Answer:
(a) Tariq

Question 4.
Harun-al-Rashid was the able emperor of ……………
(a) Abbasid dynasty
(b) Umayyad dynasty
(c) Sassanid dynasty
(d) Mongol dynasty
Answer:
(a) Abbasid dynasty

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages

Question 5.
Feudalism centred around ……………
(a) vassalage
(b) slavery
(c) serfdom
(d) land
Answer:
(a) vassalage

II. Find out the correct statement.

Question 1.
(i) Chengiz Khan was an intolerant person in religion
(ii) Mongols destroyed the city of Jerusalem
(iii) Crusades weakened the Ottoman Empire
(iv) Pope Gregory succeeded in making King Henry IV to abdicate the throne by means of Interdict
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(d) (iv) is correct

Question 2.
(i) Mangu Khan was the Governor of China.
(ii) Mongol court in China impressed Marco Polo.
(iii) The leader of Red Turbans was Hung Chao.
(iv) Mongols established their rule in China in the name of Yuan dynasty.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct

Question 3.
(i) Boyang and Changon were built during Sung dynasty.
(ii) Peasant uprisings led to the collapse of Tang dynasty.
(iii) Seljuq Turks were a tribe of Tartars.
(iv) Mongols established their rule in China in the name of Yuan dynasty.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(iii) and (iv) are correct

Question 4.
Assertion (A): Buddhism went to China from India.
Reason (R): The earliest Indian inhabitants in China were the followers of Buddhism.
(a) A is correct; R is wrong
(b) Both A & R are wrong
(c) Both A &, R are correct
(d) A is wrong R is irrelevant to A
Answer:
(a) A is correct; R is wrong

Question 5.
Assertion (A): The fall of Jerusalem into the hands of Seljuk Turks led to the Crusades.
Reason (R): European Christian pilgrims were denied access to Jerusalem. .
(a) A is correct; R is not the correct explanation of A ‘
(b) A and R are correct
(c) A and R are wrong
(d) A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A
Answer:
(d) A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A

III. Fill in the blanks.

1. ……………. were the original inhabitants of Japan.
2. ……………. was the original name of Japan.
3. ………… was the original name of Medina. ,
4. ………….were the barbarians posing a threat to the Chinese in the north.
5. …………… established Ottoman supremacy in the Balkans.
Answer:
1. Ainus
2. Yamato
3. Yethrib
4. The Mongols
5. Mohammed II

IV. Match the following:

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages 1
Answer:
1. (d)
2. (e)
3. (a)
4. (c)
5. (b)

V. Answer all questions given under each heading.

Question 1.
Shogunate in Japan.
(a) Name the two Daimyo families that fought for power in Japan.
Answer:
The Tara and Minamota

(b) Who emerged successful in the fight?
Answer:
Yoritomo emerged successful in the fight.

(c) What was the title given by the Emperor to the victorious?
Answer:
The high sounding title of Sei-i-tai Shogun (which means the Barbarian-Subduing-Great- General).

(d) Where was the capital of the first Shogunate established?
Answer:
The capital of the first Shogunate established at Kamakura,

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages

Question 2.
Rule of Abbasids.
(a) Who were the Abbasids?
Answer:
The descendants of the Prophet Mohammad’s uncle Abbas and his followers were called Abbasids. ’ ,

(b) What was the title assumed by Abbasid Caliph?
Answer:
“The commander of the faithful” was the title assumed by Abbasid Caliph.

(c) Where did they have their new capital?
Answer:
Baghdad in Iraq

(d) In whose period was the Abbasid Empire at the height of its glory?
Answer:
The Abbasid Empire was at the height of its glory during the reign of Harun-al-Rashid.

VI. Answer the following briefly.

Question 1.
The Great Wall of China.
Answer:
Between 8th and 7th centuries B.C. (BCE), the warring states in China built defensive walls to protect themselves from enemies from the north. During Chin (Qin) Dynasty, the separate walls were connected and consequently the wall stretched from east to west for about 5000 kilometres. This wall, considered to be one of the wonders of the world, served to keep nomadic tribes out. The Wall was further extended and strengthened by the succeeding dynasties. Now ’ it is 6,700 kilometres in length.

Question 2.
Contribution of Arabs to Science and Technology.
Answer:
The Arabs had a scientific spirit of inquiry. In some subjects like medicine and mathematics they learnt much from India. Many Arab students went to Takshashila, which was still a great university for specialized medicine. Indian scholars and mathematicians came in large numbers to Baghdad. Sanskrit books on medicine and other subjects were translated into Arabic. In medicine and surgery, Arab physicians and surgeons earned a great reputation.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages

Question 3.
Impact of Crusades.
Answer:
Crusades ended the feudal relations. Many of the nobles who went to East to take part in the Crusades either stayed too long a period or did not return. The serfs took advantage of their absence to break away from their bondage to the soil. Increasing demand for products of the East led to expansion of trade. Venice, Genoa and Pisa emerged as important commercial centres in the Mediterranean region.

Constantinople ceased to be the middle man in the trade between the East and the West. The elimination of powerful nobles had its influence in strengthening the monarchy in France and England. One notable outcome of Crusades was the loss of prestige suffered by Pope and Papacy.

Question 4.
How was Feudalism organized in the Middle Ages?
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages 2

Question 5.
Write about the two instruments used by Medieval Pope to assert his authority.
Answer:
New elements were included in Christian theology. They were the theory of priesthood and the theory of sacraments. These two elements increased the power of the clergy. These two elements also helped the Church to extend its authority over all of its lay members. Excommunication and Interdict were the two instruments used against those who defied the Church.

VII. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
Discuss the emergence of Japan under the Shogunate.
Answer:
During the two-hundred-year rule of Fujiwaras, a new class of large landholders emerged. These landholders were also military men, called Daimyos (meaning great names-lords). The Daimyos became powerful with their retainers and armies. Involved in personal fights, they ignored the central government in Kyoto. Out of the fight between two chief families, the Tara and the Minamota, Yoritomo emerged successful. In AD (CE) 1192, the emperor gave him the high sounding title of Sei-i-tai-Shogun, which means the Barbarian-subduing-Great-General. The title carried full power to govern hereditarily. The Shogun became the real ruler. In this way began the rule of Shogunate.

Question 2.
Who were the Mongols? How did they rule China?
Answer:

  1. Mongols were nomads. They came into Europe from the Steppes of Asiatic Russia.
  2. They were herdsmen. ‘
  3. The Mongols were experts in warfare and produced a remarkable chief, Chengiz Khan.
  4. He was a great military genius.
  5. His religion was Shamanism, a worship of the “Everlasting Blue Sky. Mongols’ hold over Russia for about 300 years made Russia technologically backward from the rest of Europe until the end of Middle Ages”.

Rule in China

  1. The Mongols established their rule in the name of Yuan dynasty.
  2. The Mongols, who overran Persia and the whole of Central Asia, did not spare China either.
  3. Mangu Khan became the Great Khan in 1252 who appointed Kublai Khan the Governor of China.
  4. The Mongol presence from one end of Eurasia to the other played a key role in spreading Chinese technological advances to the less developed societies in the west.
  5. Though the Mongol court in Beijing impressed a foreigner like Marco Polo, the poverty of peasantry continued.
  6. There were revolts of religious sects and secret societies.
  7. Finally, the leader of “Red Turbans” Chu Yuan Chang took the Mongol capital Beijing and proclaimed himself emperor in 1369.
  8. The Ming Empire, which replaced the Mongol empire, consciously discouraged industry and foreign trade in order to concentrate on agriculture.
  9. This resulted in China lagging behind in the 16th century. ‘
  10. Other parts of Eurasia, building on the techniques of the Chinese, began to march ahead.

Student Activities

Question 1.
In an outline map of Europe, the students are to sketch the extent of Ottoman Empire at the height of its glory
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages 3

Question 2.
Students are to be guided by teachers to look through Google the architectural splendours of Saracenic architecture.
Answer:
You can do this activity under the guidance of your teacher.

Assignment with Teacher’s guidance.

Question 1.
Sketching Ottoman family tree and attempting a biographical account of Saladin of Egypt and Suleiman the Magnificent of Ottoman Empire.
Answer:
The teacher can guide the students to google and find out. Narrate the entire Ottoman family tree.

Question 2.
Attempting an account of the Crusades led by Richard the Lion-Hearted of England and German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.
Answer:
You can do this activity under the guidance of your teacher.

The Middle Ages Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
Historians call the period between ………………. and …………… as the Middle Ages.
(a) 470 A.D and 1400 A.D.-(C.E)
(b) 460 A.D (C.E) and 1450 A.D (C.E)
(c) 475 A.D (C.E) and 1453 A.D (C.E)
(d) 476 A.D (C.E) and 1453 A.D (C.E)
Answer:
(d) 476 A.D (C.E) and 1453 A.D (C.E)

Question 2.
The founders of Saracenic Civilization were …………….
(a) Arabs
(b) Jews
(c) Persians
(d) Syrians
Answer:
(a) Arabs

Question 3.
……………. dynasty undertook enormous public works.
(a) Sui
(b) Tang
(c) Sung
(d) Yuan
Answer:
(b) Tang

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages

Question 4.
……………… excelled in Ceramics and Porcelain-making.
(a) Japan
(b) Korea
(c) China
(d) Europe
Answer:
(c) China

Question 5.
Japan’s name was given by a ………….. Emperor.
(a) Mongol
(b) Chinese
(c) Korean
(d) Russian
Answer:
(b) Chinese

Question 6.
…………… established Islam.
(a) Abu Bakr
(b) Abbas
(c) Prophet Mohammed
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(c) Prophet Mohammed

Question 7.
……………. is the holy city of the Christians.
(a) Jerusalem
(b) Baghdad
(c) Venice
(d) Pisa
Answer:
(a) Jerusalem

Question 8.
Chengiz Khan was the remarkable chief of ……………..
(a) Turks
(b) Arabs
(c) Mongols
(d) Chinese
Answer:
(c) Mongols

II. Find out the correct statement.

Question 1.
(i) Tang dynasty undertook enormous public works.
(ii) Land was divided into smdll peasant holdings.
(iii) Now the length of the Great Wall of China is 6,800 kilometres.
(iv) The agricultural surplus went to the Aristocrats as rents.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (i) and (ii) are correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(b) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 2.
(i) The message of equality and brotherhood had great appeal only for Arabs.
(ii) Mohammed and his followers stayed in their birth place.
(iii) The flight of Mohammad from Mecca in 622 A.D is called Hijrat. :
(iv) Mohammad died 20 years after the Hijrat.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(c) (iii) is correct

Question 3.
(i) Traders and artisans were brought under the feudal system.
(ii) The merchants and artisans formed guilds and groups.
(iii) In course of time they obeyed the nobles and kings. ,
(iv) This development continued the Feudal system. –
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(b) (ii) is correct

Question 4.
Assertion: Seljuq Turks were a tribe of Tartars from Central Asia.
Reason: They established a powerful empire in Persia.
(a) A is correct R is wrong
(b) Both A and R are wrong
(c) Both A and R are correct
(d) A is correct R is irrelevant to A.
Answer:
(c) Both A and R are correct

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages

Question 5.
Assertion: The Abbasid Empire was at the height of its glory during the reign of Harun-al- Rashid.
Reason: The Arab Empire flourished soon after the death of Harun-al-Rashid.
(a) A is correct; R is not the correct explanation of A
(b) A and R are correct
(c) A and R are wrong
(d) A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A .
Answer:
(a) A is correct; R is not the correct explanation of A

III. Fill in the blanks.

1. …………….. period was also a period of great prosperity to the landowning class, officials and rich merchants. .
2. The original religion of Japan, the Shinto was a mixture of nature and ……………..
3. The first great family that controlled the state was the ……………… family.
4. The first Shogunate is called the ……………. Shogunate.
5. …………… advocated simplicity and equality.
6. The capital of Umayyads was …………..
7. The other name of Baghdad was ……………..
8. …………….. ended the feudal relations.
9. The religion of Chengiz Khan was ……………..
10. …………… meant depriving a person of all the privileges of a Christian.
Answers:
1. Sung
2. ancestor worship
3. Soga
4. Kamakura
5. Islam
6. Damascus
7. the city of Arabian Nights
8. Crusades
9. Shamanism
10. Excommunication

IV. Match the following:

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages 4
Answer:
1. (g)
2. (a)
3. (b)
4. (f)
5. (c)
6. (d)
7. (e)

V. Answer all questions given under each heading.

Question 1.
Yuan Dynasty
(a) Who overran Persia and China?
Answer:
The Mongols overran Persia and China.

(b) Who was appointed as the Governor of China?
Answer:
Kublai Khan

(c) Mention the foreigner who impressed the Beijing.
Answer:
Marco Polo

(d) Who was the leader of the “Red Turbans”?
Answer:
Chu Yuan Chang

Question 2.
Punic Wars
(a) Who were Carthaginians?
Answer:
The Carthaginians were the descendants of the Phoenicians who excelled in seafaring and trade.

(b) Write about the Third Punic War.
Answer:
After the defeat and destruction of the Carthage in the Third Punic War, Rome emerged as an unrivalled power in the western world.

(c) Who united to drive out the Greeks?
Answer:
Rome and Carthage united to drive out the Greeks.

(d) Who was Hannibal?
Answer:
Hannibal was a general who defeated the Roman army and made a great part of Italy a desert.

Question 3.
Silk Route
(a) What is meant by Silk route?
Answer:
The trade route from China to Asia Minor and India, known as the Silk Road or Silk Route.

(b) Which places were linked by this route?
Answer:
It linked China with the West. Goods and ideas between the two great civilizations of Rome and China were exchanged through this route.

(c) Name the good exchanged from East to West and West to East.
Answer:
Silk went westward, and wools, gold, and silver went east.

(d) Name the religion which reached China through this route.
Answer:
China received Buddhism from India via the Silk Road. .

Question 4.
Slave Trade in Rome
(a) Why was the new labour force produced by Rome?
Answer:
Rome produced a new labour force for the rich to exploit. Big landholders bought slaves cheaply and used them to cultivate their estates.

(b) What was the strength of the Slave population in the 1st century B.C.?
Answer:
The strength of the slave population in the 1st century B.C. was 3.25 million.

(c) What was the result of Slave trade?
Answer:
Slave trade led to the impoverishment of free labour. Many poor peasants had to abandon their children who also ended up in the slave markets.

(d) Which place became a great slave market?
Answer:
The island of Delos became a great slave market.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages

Question 5.
Arabs’ Scholarly Pursuits.
(a) What did the Abbasid Caliphs do?
Answer:
Abbasid Caliphs did not attempt to conquer new lands.

(b) What were their interest?
Answer:
They were more interested in scholarly pursuits.

(c) Name the subjects, they learnt from India.
Answer:
Medicine and Mathematics.

(d) In which field (Arabs) they earned a great reputation? .
Answer:
In medicine and surgery, Arab physicians and surgeons earned a great reputation.

VI. Answer the following briefly.

Question 1.
Write a short account of the public works undertaken by Tang dynasty.
Answer:

  • Tang dynasty undertook enormous public works. Two capital cities, Boyang and Chang- on, were built.
  • Scholar officials, trained in Confucius Philosophy, were appointed to counterbalance the landowning aristocratic class.
  • Land was divided into small peasant holdings.
  • As a result, the agricultural surplus went to the state as taxes, not to the aristocrats as rents. State monopoly of salt, and tea added to its- revenues.

Question 2.
What led to the collapse of Chin dynasty?
Answer:

  • Shih Huang Ti crushed all local rulers and established a strong central government.
  • However, uprisings of the peasantry, unlike in other cultures, occurred again and again in China.
  • Such uprisings led to the collapse of Chin dynasty.

Question 3.
What do you know about Sung Dynasty?
Answer:

  1. The rebellion of hard-pressed peasantry under the leadership of Hung Ch’ao dealt a death knell to the tottering Tang empire.
  2. The empire split into five rival states, until it was reunited under a new dynasty, Sung.
  3. Trade and industry flourished during the reign of Sung dynasty.
  4. Iron and steel industries became highly organized.

Question 4.
Why did Oligarchy start in Greece?
Answer:

  1. When the Greek City-States first emerged, they still carried the legacy of the past.
  2. The rulers came from lines of traditional chieftains.
  3. Those who grew rich from the expansion of trade, resented the privileges enjoyed by the old ruling families.
  4. The outcome was the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of “oligarchies” in many city-states.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages

Question 5.
Name the Empire which replaced the Mongol Empire. What did they do?
Answer:
The Ming Empire, which replaced the Mongol empire, consciously discouraged industry and foreign trade in order to concentrate on agriculture. This resulted in China lagging behind in the 16th century. Other parts of Eurasia, building on the techniques of the Chinese, began to march ahead.

Question 6.
Write about the reign of Alexander, the Great.
Answer:

  1. Under Alexander the Great, the Greeks were able to establish a kingdom in Macedonia.
  2. This kingdom succeeded in annexing two historic empires of Egypt and the Middle East.
  3. But the entire period of Alexander’s reign was spent on wars.
  4. The Greek school of Science, Mathematics and Philosophy reached its peak in the Greek.

Question 7.
What was the message given by Islam?
Answer:
Islam gave a message of brotherhood. Mohammed laid stress on the equality of all those who were Muslims. This message of equality and brotherhood had great appeal not only for the Arabs, who were divided into warring tribes but also for people in other parts of the world.

Question 8.
What do you know about Excommunication and Interdict?
Answer:
Excommunication meant depriving a person of all the privileges of a Christian. He was denied the right to sacraments in Church. His or her body could not be buried in the consecrated ground. Interdict was to deny benefits of religion to a ruler’s subject, intended to kindle their resentment against him.

VII. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
Describe Feudalism in detail, with diagram.
Answer:
Despite the hold of powerful religions such as Christianity and Islam, the economic life of . people was governed by feudal relations.
In the prevailing anarchy and violence, the mighty living in strong castles seized whatever they could and the poor peasants and labourers suffered. The latter were not organized to defend their interests. There was no strong central government either to protect them. Out of this chaos and disorder evolved the feudal system.
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages 5
The king, supposed to represent God on earth, was at the head of the feudal regime. Immediately after him were the great nobles, known as dukes, counts, earls. The relationship was one of a vassal. The nobles in turn had vassals of their own, dividing and distributing their fief to lesser nobles called viscounts or barons. Last in this order were the knights, whose fiefs could not be divided.

At the bottom were the villeins or serfs. In the feudal system which centered around vassalage, there was no idea of equality or freedom.
There were only rights and obligations. The Bishops, Abbots and Cardinals and the Church came under this socio-political structure. The nobility and the clergy did not do any physical work. So the burden of producing the food and other necessities of life fell on the peasants and. Feudalism artisans.

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