# Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Economics Solutions Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

You can Download Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Book Solutions Guide Pdf, Tamilnadu State Board help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Economics Solutions Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

### Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability Textual Exercise

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
Assertion (A): Development increases the quality of life.
Reason (R): People will have higher incomes, better education, better health and nutrition, less poverty. .
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)
(c) (A) is correct and (R) is false
(d) (A) is false and (R) is true
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)

Question 2.
The term‘Human resources’ refers to ……
(a) investment on poor people
(b) expenditure on agriculture
(c) investment on assests
(d) collective abilities of people
(d) collective abilities of people

Question 3.
For comparing development between countries, their …… is considered to be one of the
most important attributes.
(a) growth
(b) income
(c) expenditure
(d) savings
(b) income

Question 4.
……. is considered a true measure of national income.
(a) GNP
(b) GDP
(c) NNP
(d) NDP
(c) NNP

Question 5.
The …… income is also called per capita income.
(a) average
(b) total
(c) people
(d) monthly
(a) average

Question 6.
Which one of the following country is not a G-8 country?
(a) Japan
(c) Russia
(d) India
(d) India

Question 7.
Which one of the following country is not a member of SAARC?
(a) India
(b) Pakistan
(c) China
(d) Bhutan
(c) China

Question 8.
Assertion (A) : The Net Product (NNP) is considered as a true measure of national output.
Reason (R): It is also known as national income.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)
(c) (A) is correct and (R) is false
(d) (A) is false and (R) is true
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)

Question 9.
Assertion (A): Human resource is necessary for the progress of any country.
Reason (R): Investment in education and health of people can result in a high rate of returns in the future for a country.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)
(c) (A) is correct and (R) is false
(d) (A) is false and (R) is true
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)

Question 10.
The Human Development Index (HDI) does not take into account the following dimension in its calculation.
(a) Gender
(b) Health
(c) Education
(d) Income
(a) Gender

Question 11.
Among the following states which state have the literacy rate (2011) higher than national average?
(d) None of these

Question 12.
Sex-ratio means …..
(a) the ratio between adult-male and adult female in a population
(b) the ratio between female and male in a population
(c) the relationship between a male of female
(d) the number of females per thousand males
(b) the ratio between female and male in a population

Question 13.
Inter-generational equality is ensured under the process of
(a) Industrial progress
(b) Economic development
(c) Sustainable development
(d) Economic growth
(b) Economic development

Question 14.
Find the odd one.
(a) Solar energy
(b) Wind energy
(c) Paper
(d) Natural gas
(c) Paper

Question 15.
……….. is the state with the highest installed solar capacity in India.
(b) West Bengal
(c) Kerala

Question 16.
……. resources are those which will get exhausted after years of use.
(a) Natural
(b) Renewable
(c) Non-Renewable
(d) New
(c) Non-Renewable

Question 17.
The thermal plant emits a large quantity of ……, which pollutes the environment.
(a) Oxygen
(b) Nitrogen
(c) Carbon
(d) Carbon dioxide
(d) Carbon dioxide

II. Fill in the blanks

1. The economic progress of any country is known as ………
2. The head quarters of the HRD Ministry is in ……..
3. The state has the highest literacy rate in India is ……….
4. Human Development Report of the world prepared and released by …….
5. Groundwater is an example of ……. resource.
6. The book An Uncertain Glory was written by ……..

1. economic development
2. New Delhi
3. Kerala
4. UNDP
5. renewable
6. Prof. Amartya Sen

III. Match the following

1. (d)
2. (c)
3. (b)
4. (a)

IV. Give Short Answers

Question 1.
What do you mean by development?

1. Development refers to the progress in a particular field or particular person.
2. Similarly, by the economic progress of a country, it is known as economic development.
3. However, the interpretation of the concept development keeps on changing from time to time, from person to person.
4. Its meaning gets extended further.

Question 2.
What are the indicators of development?
The major indicators to measure the level of economic development are Net National Product (NNP), Per Capita Income (PCI), Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), and Human Development
Index (HDI).

Question 3.
Why NNP is not considered as a useful measure to compare a country’s development with other countries?

1. For comparison between countries’ development, total income or the national income is not a useful measure.
2. Since countries have different populations, comparing total income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn.
3. Hence we compare average income which is also called per capita income.
4. Now the economy has realised that investment in human capital

Question 4.
Why human resources is considered the foremost resource of any country?

1. Human Resource is necessary for the progress of any country.
2. ‘Human Resources’ refers to the collective abilities of people, which can be utilised in the production sector.

So human resource is considered as the foremost resource of any country.

Question 5.
Expand the following:
1. PPP
2. HDI
1. PPI – Purchasing Power Parity
2. HD – Human Development Index.

Question 6.
Expand the following:
1. NNP
2. PCI.
1. NNP – Net National Product
2. PCI – Per Capita Income

Question 7.
What is‘Solar Power’?
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity either directly using photovoltaic cells or indirectly using concentrated solar power. Solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.

V. Answer in detail.

Question 1.
Discuss the policies for sustainable development.

1. Sustainable economic development means development should take place without damaging the environment. Sustainability
2. The development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generation.
3. Sustainability of development is comparatively a new era of knowledge in which scientists, economists, philosophers, and other social scientists are working together.
4. If the environment is not protected, we fall prey to national disaster.
5. To achieve time sustainability we need to balance economic social and environmental sustainability in equal harmony.
6. In general, the question of development or process is perennial.

Question 2.
Describe in detail environmental policies in India.
Environmental policies in India:

1. Environmental policies in India have been evolved considerably over the past 3 decades.
2. These policies have covered a wide range of issues such as air, water pollution, waste management, and biodiversity conservation.
3. India faces challenges in economic development, which is to be met from limited resources and uncertain climate.
4. One of the approaches to overcome this challenge is through the path of sustainable development.
5. The Supreme Court of India has been engaged in interpreting and introducing new changes in Environmental protection.
6. Article 51 A(g) of the Constitution states that “It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.”
7. The Indian Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 protected biodiversity.
8. The 1988 National Forest Policy had conservations as its fundamental principle.
9. The Government passed the Environment Protection Act in 1986.
10. Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act of 1992 for control of bio-diversity.
11. Development increases with the quality of life.
12. People will have higher incomes, better education, better health and nutrition, less poverty, and more equality of opportunity.

Question 3.
Differentiate between renewable and non-renewable resources.

Question 4.
Mention any five environmental acts and their action.

VI. Projects and Activities.

List the various ways in which the problems of garbage and emissions are being dealt with around the world.

1. The threat of waste to the environment’s health and safety is huge.
2. Pollution runs into rivers and seeps into groundwater.
3. Flooding is caused by garbage clogging drains and the atmosphere can be poisoned by the toxic discharge from the trash.
4. Bacteria, insects, and vermin thrive from garbage, causing pollution leading to respiratory diseases, contamination of surface-water affecting all eco-system.
5. We can reduce waste at home by knowing the rules of recycling, ditching plastic bags, learning to repair rather than discarding, not using disposable plates, etc.
6. Use environmentally safe products, use water-based paints, dispose of trash properly.

VII. HOTS

Write in detail what kind of environmental problems you face in your locality.
Location: Velachery – Chennai.
Problem: “Despite being one of the fastest-growing localities with several upmarket malls and hotels living in Velachery still face basic problems such as

1. Overflowing sewage
2. Poor drainage
3. The underground water-breeding grounds for mosquitoes.
4. There is always the fear of contamination of drinking water.
5. every time it pours in the city, most of Velachery drowns.

The above-mentioned problems are the dominant ones in Velachery.

VIII. Life Skill.

Question 1.
How is the Per Capita income calculated?

1. Per capita income is the average income of an individual of a country
2. It is calculated by dividing the area’s total income by its total population.

PCI – Per = $$\frac { NNP }{ Total Population of country }$$
PCI – Per Capita Income; NNP – Net National Product.

### Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement, and Sustainability Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
Assertion (A): The term ‘economic development’ refers to the overall growth of all sectors of
the economy.
Reason (R): By adoption of new technologies.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)
(c) (A) is correct and (R) is false
(d) (A) is false and (R) is true
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)

Question 2.
This is also known as National Income.
(a) NNP
(b) GDP
(c) PCI
(d) PPP
(a) NNP

Question 3.
This is not a G8 country.
(a) Russia
(c) France
(d) Nepal
(d) Nepal

Question 4.
This is one of the ‘BRICS’ countries.
(a) China
(b) Afghanistan
(c) Nepal
(d) Pakistan
(a) China

Question 5.
The enrolment for higher education in the highest in ……… in India.
(a) Kerala
(e) West Bengal
(d) Maharashtra

Question 6.
This is a renewable resource.
(a) Metals
(b) Glass
(c) Wind energy
(d) Diesel
(c) Wind energy

II. Fill in the blanks.

1. Every human being has an ……… of his (or) her own to achieve progress in life.
2. Countries with higher income are considered to be ………
3. ……… became the third-largest economy in terms of PPP.
4. …….. can be divided into renewable resources and non-renewable resources.
5. ……. absorb the sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.

1. Ambition
2. More developed
3. India
4. Natural resources
5. Solar panels

III. Match the following

1. (d)
2. (a)
3. (b)
4. (c)

IV. Give short answers.

Question 1.
What leads to development?
If our thinking turns towards progress and about the ways to achieve the many goals for progress, it leads to development.

Question 2.
For comparing the development of various countries, total income is not a useful measure. How?
Since the countries have different populations comparing total income will not be suggestive of what an average person is likely to earn. So, for comparing the development of various countries total income is not a useful measure.

Question 3.
Define Purchasing Power Parity.
Purchasing Power Parity is defined as the number of units of a country’s currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as one dollar would buy in the U.S.

Question 4.
What do you mean by Human Resource Development?
Human Resource Development means the development of a person’s physical and mental abilities through education, health care, and training.

Question 5.
Why do we say that investment in education and health of people can result in a high rate
of returns?
If a child is invested with good education and health, he or she may turn to be very productive in the future in the form of higher earnings and greater contribution to society. Therefore, investment in education and health of people can result in a high rate of returns

Question 6.
What is the end result of Development?

1. Development increases the quality of life.
2. People will have higher incomes, better education, better health and nutrition, less poverty and more equality of opportunity.

V. Answer in detail.

Question 1.
Describe the sustainability of Development.