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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 6th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 2 The Post-Mauryan India
Samacheer Kalvi 6th Social Science The Post-Mauryan India Textual Evaluation
I. Choose the correct answer:
The last Mauryan emperor was killed by
was the founder Of Satavahana dynasty.
was the greatest of all the Kushana emperors.
(c) Kadphises II
(b) Kadphises I
The Kantara School of Sanskrit flourished in the
(b) North-west India
(d) Gangetic valley
Sakas ruled over Gandhara region
II. Match the statement with the reason and tick the appropriate answer:
Assertion (A) :Colonies of Indo-Greeks and Indo-Parthians were established along the north-western part of India.
Reason (R) : The Bactrian and Parthian settlers gradually intermarried anti intermixed with the indigenous population.
a. Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
b. Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
c. A is correct but R is not correct.
d. A is not correct but R is correct.
(a) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
Statement I : Indo-Greek rulers introduced die system and produced coins with
inscription and symbols, engraving figures on them.
Statement II : Indo-Greek rule was ended by the Kushanas.
a. Statement I is wrong, but statement II is correct.
b.Statement II is wrong, but statement I is correct.
c. Both the statements are correct.
d. Both the statements are wrong.
(b) Statement II is wrong, but statement! is correct
Circle the odd one
Pushyamitra, Vasudeva, Simuka, Kanishka
- All of the three generals assassinated their kings.
- Kanishka followed Buddhism, where as other three rulers were not followers of Bhuddhism.
Answer the following in a word
- Who was the last Sunga ruler?
- Who was the most important and famous king of Sakas?
- Who established Kanva dynasty in Magadha?
- Who converted Gondophemes into Christianity?
III. Fill in the blanks :
- was the founder of Indo-Parthian Kingdom.
- In the South, Satavahanas became independent after death.
- Hala is famous as the author of
- was the last ruler of Kanva dynasty
- Kushana’s later capital was
- Peshavar or Purushpura
IV. State whether True or False
- Magadha continued to be a great centre of Buddhist culture even after the fall of the Mauryan Empire.
- We get much information about Kharavela from Hathigumba inscription.
- Simuka waged a successful war against Magadha.
- Buddhacharita was written by Asvaghosha.
V. Match the following :
- Patanjali -1.Kalinga
- Agnimitra – 2. Indo-Greek
- King Kharavela – 3.Indo-Parthians
- Demetrius – 4. Second grammarian
- Gondophemes – 5. Malavikagnimitra
VI. Find out the wrong statement from the following
- The Kushanas formed a section of the yueh-chi tribes who inhabited north-western China.
- Kanishka made Jainism the state religion and built many monasteries.
- The Great Stupa of Sanchi and the railings which enclose it belong to the Sunga period.
- Pan-Chiang was the Chinese general defeated by Kanishka.
2. Kanishka made Jainism the state religion and built many monasteries.
VII. Answer in one or two sentences.
What happened to the last Mauryan emperor?
- The last Mauryan emperor, Brihadratha, was assassinated by his own general, Pushyamitra Sunga.
- He established his Sunga dynasty in Magadha.
Write a note on Kalidasa’s Malavikagnimitra.
- Pushyamitra’s son Agnimitra is said to be the hero of Kalidasa’s Malavikagnimitra.
- This drama also refers to the victory of Vasumitra, Agnimitra’s son, over the
Greeks on the banks of the Sindhu river.
Name the ruler of Kanva dynasty.
- The Kanva dynasty produced four kings and their rule lasted only for 45 years.
- The Kanvas rulers were
- Bhumi Mitra
Highlight the literary achievements of Satavahanas.
- The Satavahana king Hala was himself a great scholoar of Sanskrit.
- The Kantara school of Sanskrit flourished in the Deccan in Second Century B.C.
- Hala is famous as the author of Sattasai (Saptasati), 700 stanzas in Prakrit.
Name the places where Satavahana’s monuments are situated.
- Gandhara, Mathura, Amaravati, Bodha Gaya, Sanchi and Bharhut were known for splendid monuments and art.
- The Mathura School of Sculpture produced images and life-size statues of the Buddhist, Brahmanical and Jain deities.
Give an account of the achievements of Kadphises
- Kadphises I was the first famous military and political leader of the Kushanas.
- He overthrew the Indo-Greek and Indo-Parthian rulers.
- He established himself as a sovereign ruler of Bactria.
- He extended his power in Kabul, Gandhara and upto the Indus.
Name the Buddhist saints and scholars who adorned the court of Kanishka.
- Kanishka was an ardent Buddhist.
- His court was adorned with a number of Buddhist saints and scholars, like Asvaghosha, Vasumitra and Nagaijuna.
VIII. Answer the following :
Who invaded India after the decline of the Mauryan empire?
- The break-up of Mauiyan empire resulted in the invasions of Sakas, Scythians, Parthians, Indo-Greeks or Bactria Greeks and Kushanas from the north-west.
- In the South, Satavahanas became independent after Asoka’s death.
- There were Sunga and Kanvas in the north before the emergence of Gupta dynasty.
- Chedis (Kalinga) declared t heir independence.
- Though Magadha ceased to be the premier state of India, it continued to be a great centre of Buddhist culture.
Give an account of the conquests of Pushyamitra Sunga.
- The last Mauryan emperor, Brihadratha, was assassinated by his own general, Pushyamitra Sunga.
- He established his Sunga dynasty in Magadha. His capital was Pataliputra.
- Pushyamitra successfully repulsed the invasion of Bactria king Menander. He also conquered Vidarba.
- He was a staunch follower of Vedic religion. He performed two Asvamedbayagnas (horse sacrifices) to assert his imperial authority.
Write a note on GautamiputraSatakarni.
- GautamiputraSatakarni was the greatest ruler of the family .
- In the Nasik prashasti, published by his mother GautamiBalasri, Gautamiputra Satakami is described as the destroyer of Sakas, Yavanas (Greeks) and Pahlavas (Parthians).
- The extent of the empire is also mentioned in the record.
- Their domain included Maharashtra, north Konkan, Berar, Gujarat, Kathiawar and Malwa.
- His ship coins are suggestive of Andhras’ skill in seafaring and their naval power.
- The Bogor inscriptions suggest that South India played an important role in the process of early state formation in Southeast Asia.
What do you know of Gondopharid dynasty?
- Indo-Parthians, came after the Indo-Greeks and the Indo-ScythianS who were, in turn, defeated by the Kushanas in the second the half of the first century A.D.
- Indo-Parthian kingdom or Gondopharid dynasty was founded by Gondophemes.
- The domain of Indo-Parthians comprised Kabul and Gandhara.
- The name of Gonodophemes is associated with the Christian apostle St. Thomas.
- According to Christian tradition, St.Thomas visited the court of Gondophemes and converted him to Christianity.
Who was considered the best known Indo-Greek King. Why?
- Menander was one of the best known Indo-Greek kings.
- He is said to have ruled a large kingdom in the north-west of the country.
- His coins were found over an extensive area ranging from Kabul valley and Indus river to western Uttar Pradesh.
- MilindaPanha, a Buddhist text, is a discourse between Bactrian king Milinda and the learned Buddhist scholar Nagasena.
- This Milinda is identifed with Menander.
- Menander is believed to have become a Buddhist and promoted Buddhism.
Who were Sakas?
- The Indo-Greek rule in India was ended by the Sakas. Sakas as nomads came in huge number and spread all over northern and western India.
- The Sakas were against the tribe of Turki nomads.
- Sakas were Scythians, nomadic ancient Iranians, and known as Sakas in Sanskrit.
- Saka rule was founded by Maos or Mogain in the Gandhara region and his capital was ‘Sirkap’. His name is mentioned in Mora inscription. His coins bear images of Buddha and Siva.
- Rudradaman was the most important and famous king of Sakas. His Junagadh/ Gimar inscription was the first inscription in chaste Sanskrit.
- In India, the Sakas were assimilated into Indian society. They began to adopt Indian names and practice Indian religious beliefs.
- The Sakas appointed kshatrapas or satraps as provincial governor to administer their territories.
Give an account of the religious policy of Kanishka.
- Kanishka was an ardent Buddhist.
- His empire was a Buddhist empire.
- He adopted Buddhism under the influence of Asvaghosha, a celebrated monk from Pataliputra.
- He was as equal as the exponent and champion of Mahayanism.
- He made Buddhism as the state religion.
- He built many stupas and monasteries in Mathura, Taxila and many other parts of his kingdom.
- He sent Buddhist missionaries to Tibet, China and many countries of Central Asia for the propagation of Buddha’s gospel.
- He organised the fourth Buddhist Council at Kundalavana near Srinagar to sort out the differences between the various schools of Buddhism. It was only in this council that Buddhism was split into Hinayanism and Mahayanism.
IX. HOTS :
The importance of Gandhara School of Art.
- The Gandhara School of Art had developed in the first century A.D along with Mathura School during the reign of Kushana emperor Kanishka.
- Both Sakas and Kushanas were patrons of Gandhara school which is known for the first sculpture representations of the Buddha in human form.
- The art of the Gandhara school was primarily Mahayana.
- The Gandhara school of Indian Art is heavily indebted to Greek influence.
- The Greeks were good cave builders. The Mahayana Buddhist learnt the art of carving out caves from them and became skilled in rock cut architecture.
Provide an account of trade and commerce during the Post-Mauryan period in South India.
- Satavahanas also refered to as the Andhras were an ancient dynasty based in the Deccan region.
- They flourished in South India for about 450 years
- They participated in economic expansion through intensification of agriculture and trade within and beyond the Indian subcontinent.
- The exploitation of sites with mineral resources facilitated commerce and crafts (such as ceramic ware).
- The increased craft production is evident from archaeological discoveries at sites of such as Kotalingala as well as epigraphic references to artisans and guilds.
- They controlled the Indian sea coast and as a result, they dominated the growing Indian trade with the Roman Empire.
- The Periplus of the Erythrean sea mentions two important Satavahana trade centres: Prathishthana and Tagara.
- Other important urban centres included Kondapur, Banavasi and Madhavpur.
- Nanaghat was the site of an important pass that linked the Satavahana capital Pratishthana to the sea.
X. Activity :
Prepare an album with centres of archaeological monuments of Satavahanas and Kushanas.
- Several metal figurines and unique bronze objects were found from Bramhapuri.
- A bronze statue of the standing Buddha discovered in Oc-Eo (an archaeological site in Vietnam) resembles the Amaravati
- The later Satavahana kings issued lead or bronze coins depicting ships with two masts.
- A stone seal discovered in NakhonPattom in Thailand has the same design.
- Gandhara, Madhura, Amaravati, Bodh Gaya, Sanchi and Bharhut were known for splendid monuments and art.
- The Mathura School of Sculputre produced images and life-size statues of the Buddhist, Brahmanical and Jain deities.
- Kanishka’s coins portray images of Indian, Greek, Iranians divinities.
- He encouraged Gandhara school of art as well as Mathura school of art.
- His greatest contribution to Buddhist architecture was the Kanishka stupa at Peshawar, Pakistan.
- Several Buddhist statues are directly connected to the reign of Kanishka like Bodhisattra statues.
Arrange a debate in the classroom on the cultural contribution of Indo-Greeks Sakas and Kushanas
- Indo-Greek rulers introduced a die system and produced properly shaped coins with inscription, symbols and engraved figures on Indo-greeks.
- Indians learnt this art from Indo-greeks.
- The Gandhara school of Indian art is heavily indebted to Greek influence.
- The Greeks were good cave builders. The Mahayana Buddhist learnt the art of carving out caves from them and became skilled in rock-cut architecture.
- Rudradaman’s Junagadh/Gimar inscription was the first inscription in chaste Sanskrit.
- In India, the Sakas were assimilated into Indian society.
- They began to adopt Indian names and practice Indian religious beliefs.
- Kanishka was a great patron of art and literature. His court was adorned with a number of Buddhist saints and scholars, like Asvaghosha, Vasumitra and Nagarajuna.
- He founded the town of Kanishkapura in Kashmir and furnished the capital of Puiushapura with magnificent public buildings.
- The Gandhara school of the art flourished during this time.
- The most favourable subject of the Gandhara artists was the carving of sculptures of Buddha.
- Buddhist learning and culture was taken to China and Mongolia from Takshashila.
- The great Asiatic culture mingled with Indian Buddhist culture during the Kushana time.
XI. Answer Grid
Who wrote Brihastkatha?
Name the Satavahana ruler who performed two Asvamedha sacrifices.
How many years did the Satavahanas rule the Deccan?
Who laid the foundation of Saka era?
What was the favourite subject of the Gandhara artists?
Where did Kanishka organise the fourth Buddhist Council?
Samacheer Kalvi 6th Social Science Mauryan India Additional Questions
I. Choose the correct answer:
In the of India Satavahanas became independent after Asoka’s death.
Simuka, the founder of the Satavahana dynasty ruled for
(a) 20 yrs
(c) 22 yrs
(b) 21 yrs
(d) 23 yrs
(d) 23 yrs
MilindaPanha is a Buddhist
Hala belonged to dynasty.
II. Match the statement with reason and tick the appropriate answer :
Assertion (A) :Gautamiputra Satakarni was the greatest ruler of the family.
Reason (R) :He is described as the destroyer of the Sakas, Yavanas and Pahlavas.
a. A is correct but R is not correct.
b. A is not correct but R is correct.
c. Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
d. Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(d) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
Statement I :Hiuen Tsang, the Chinese Buddhist monk and traveller is one of the sources of the Post Mauryan period.
Statement II :Saka rule was founded by Maos or Mogain in the Gandhara region.
a. Both the statements are correct.
b. Both the statements are wrong.
c. Statement I is wrong but statement II is correct.
d. Statement II is wrong but statement I is correct.
(a) Both the statements are correct
Circle the odd one.
Bhumi Mitra, Nagaijuna, Susarman, Krishna.
Reason : Krishna was a ruler from Satavahana dynasty. Other three were from Kanva dynasty.
- Answer the following in one word.
- Mention the other term of Satavahanas.
- Name the second grammarian in Sanskrit.
- Name the Sunga ruler who performed two AsvamedhaYagnas.
- Whose work was Sattasai?
III. Fill in the blanks:
- The author of Harshacharita was _______
- Patanjali wrote _______
- Nagarjuna’s work was _______
- Agnimitra’s son was _______
- Pushyamitra’s capital was _______
- Under the Sungas _______ became the court language.
- The great stupa of sanchi and railings belong to the _______ period.
- The Sakas appointed _______ as provicial governor
- Initially the Kushana capital was _______
- Kanishka defeated the Chinese general _______
- Kshatrapas / Satraps
IV. True or False :
- Agminitra is said to be the hero of Kalidasa’s Malavikagnimitra.
- The Satavahanas played an important role in defending the Gangetic valley.
- The last Kanva ruler was Satakami.
- Bactria became independent under Diodotus I.
- Menander promoted Jainism.
- Sungas – i. Narayana
- Kanvas – ii. Sirkap
- Satavahanas – iii. Pahlavas
- Sakas – iv. Vasumitra
- Indo Parthians – v. Simuka
- – iv
- – i
- – v
- – ii
- – iii
VI. Find out the wrong statement from the following :
- The Sunga dynasty lasted for about one hundred years.
- The Sungas promoted Shaivism.
- The Kanva dynasty produced four Kings.
- Yavanas were Greeks.
2. The Sungas promoted Shaivism
VII. Answer in one or two sentences
Mention the importance of the Sunga period.
- The Sungas played an important role in defending the Gangetic Valley from the encroachments of the Bactrian Greeks.
- Pushyamitra, and then his successors, revived Vedic religious practices and promoted Vaishnavism.
- Sanskrit gradually gained ascendancy and became the court language.
Who laid the foundation of the Satavahana dynasty?
- The last Kanva ruler Susarman was assassinated by his powerful feudatory chief of Andhra named Simuka.
- Simuka laid the foundation of the Satavahana dynasty.
Who published Nasik Prashasti?
Nasik Prashasti was published by Gautami Balasri, mother of Gautamiputra Satakami.
Under whom did the satrapies Bactria and Parthia become independent,
Satrapies Bactria became independent under the leadership of Diodotus I and Parthia under Arsaces.
What facilitated the establishment oflndo-Greek and Indo-Parthian colonies along the north western part of India?
- The Bactrian and Parthian settlers gradually inter-married and inter-mixed with the indigenous population.
- This facilitated the establishment oflndo-Greek and Indo-Parthian colonies along the north western part of India.
What was the change brought in by the Sunga period in the railings and gateways of the Buddhist Stupas?
During the Sunga period, stone was replaced by wood in the railings and the gateways of the Buddhist stupas as seen in Bharhut and Sanchi.
Who was Kaharavela?
- King Kharavela of Kalinga was a contemporary of the Sungas.
- We get information about Kharavela from the Hathigumba inscription.
Write about the Buddhist Statue at Bamyan Valley.
- The world famous life-size statue of Buddha at Bamyan valley on the mountains is located in the northwestern frontiers of ancient India.
- They were carved out of the solid rocks by the dedicated artists of the Gandhara School of Art during the Post-Mauryan period.
Write a note on Kadphises
- Kadphises II maintained friendly relationship with the emperors of China and Rome.
- He encouraged trade and commerce with the foreign countries.
- Some of his coins contained the inscribed figures of Lord Siva and his imperial titles were inscribed in the Kharosthi language.
VIII. Answer the following :
Mention about the archaeological sources and literary source of the Post-Mauryan Period.
Archaeological Sources of the Post-Mauryan period :
- Ayodhya Inscription of Dana Deva
- Persepolis, Nakshi Rustam Inscriptions
- Moga (Taxila copper plate)
- Junagadh/Gimar Inscription
- Nasik Prasasti
- Inscription of Darius I
- Coins of Satavahanas
- Coins of Kadphises II
- Roman Coins
- Gargi Samhita
- Harshacharita of Banabhatta
- Mahabhasyaof Patanjali
- Brihastkatha of Gunadhya
- Madhyamika Sutra of Nagaijuna
- Buddhacharita of Asvaghosha
- Malavikagnimitra of Kalidasa
Write a note on Demetrius
- Demetrius was the son of Greco-Bactrian ruler Euthydemus.
- He was king of Macedonia from 294 to 288 BC.
- Numismatic evidence proves that Demetrius issued bi-lingual square coins with Greek on the obverse and Kharosthi on the reverse.
- Scholars are not able to decide which of the three, named Demetrius, was the initiator of the Yavana era, commencing for second century BC in India..
Who were Kushanas?
- The Kushanas formed a section of the Yueh-chi tribes, who inhabited north western China in the remote past.
- In the first century BC, the Yueh-chi tribes were composed of five major sections of which the Kushanas attained political ascendancy over others.
- By the beginning of Christian era, all the yueh-chi tribes had acknowledged the supremacy of the Kushanas.
- They settled down in the Bactrian and Parthian lands.
- The Kushanas gradually overran Bactria and Parthia and established themselves in northern India.
- Their concentration was mostly in the Punjab, Rajaputana and Kathiawar.
- Kushana rulers were Buddhists.
- Takshashila and Mathura continued to be great centres of Buddhist learning, attracting students from China and western Asia.
Write about the Conquests of Kanishka.
- Kanishka conquered and annexed Kashmir
- He waged a successful war against Magadha.
- He also waged a war against a ruler of Parthia to maintain safety and integrity in his vast empire on the western and south-western border.
- After the conquest of Kashmir and Gandhara, he turned his attention towards China.
- He defeated the Chinese general Pan-Chiang and safeguarded the northern borders of India from Chinese intrusion.
- His empire extended form Kashmir down to Benaras, and the Vindhya mountain in the south. It included Kashgar, Yarkhand touching the borders of Persia and Parthia.