Samacheer Kalvi 8th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 7 Plant Kingdom

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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 8th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 7 Plant Kingdom

Samacheer Kalvi 8th Science Solutions Plant Kingdom Text Book Exercises

I. Choose the correct answers

Question 1.
Solanum trilobatum is the binomial name of Thoothuvalai. Here the word ‘Solanum’ refers to …………….
(a) Species
(b) Genus
(c) Class
(d) Orders
Answer:
(b) Genus

Question 2.
…………….. is an example for colonial form of algae.
(a) Oscillatoria
(b) Nostoc
(c) Volvox
(d) Chlorella
Answer:
(c) Volvox

Question 3.
Floridean starch is a reserve food material of …………….
(a) Chloroplyceae
(b) Phaeophyceae
(c) Rhodophyceae
(d) Cyanophyceae
Answer:
(c) Rhodophyceae

Question 4.
The edible mushroom is …………….
(a) Polyporus
(b) Agaricus
(c) Pennicillium
(d) Aspergillus
Answer:
(b) Agaricm

Question 5.
Soil erosion is prevented by …………….. plants.
(a) Algae
(b) Fungi
(c) Bryophytes
(d) Pteridophytes
Answer:
(c) Bryophytes

Question 6.
The first vascular cryptogams in land plants are …………….
(a) Bryophytes
(b) Pteridophytes
(c) Gymnosperm
(d) Angiosperm
Answer:
(b) Pteridophytes

Question 7.
The well – developed sporophytic plant body is seen in ……………..
(a) Bryophytes
(b) Pteridophytes
(c) Gymnosperms
(d) Angiosperms
Answer:
(c) Gymnosperms

Question 8.
Binominal Nomenclature was first introduced in the year of ……………
(a) 1970
(b) 1975
(c) 1978
(d) 1623
Answer:
(d) 1623

Question 9.
Penicillin is an antibiotic, which is extracted from
(a) Algae
(b) Fungi
(c) Bryophytes
(d) Pteridophytes
Answer:
(b) Fungi

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. The word‘Taxonomy’is derived from …………….
  2. Binomial Nomenclature was first introduced by …………….
  3. The book “Genera Plantarum” was written by ……………..
  4. Monocotyledon seeds bear only …………….. cotyledon.
  5. Brown algae belongs to ……………. class.
  6. Agar Agar is obtained from ……………. algae.
  7. The reserve food material of fungi are and …………….
  8. The first true land plant is …………….
  9. Xylem and phloem are absent in ……………. plants.
  10. Reticulate venation is present in ……………. plants.

Answer:

  1. Greek
  2. Gaspard Bauhin
  3. Bentham and Hooker
  4. One
  5. Phaeophyceae
  6. Red
  7. Glycogen, oil
  8. Pteridophyte
  9. Bryophyte
  10. Dicot

III. True or False

Question 1.
In polypetalae, the petals are free.
Answer:
True.

Question 2.
Binomial name should contains more than two words.
Answer:
False.
Correct statement:
Binomial name should contain two words.

Question 3.
Artificial system of classification is based on the vegetative characters of the plant.
Answer:
False.
Correct statement:
Artificial system of classification is based on the morphological characters of the plant.

Question 4.
Cell wall of fungi is made up of chitin.
Answer:
True.

Question 5.
Pinus is a closed seeded plant.
Answer:
False.
Correct statement:
Pinus is a naked seeded plant.

Question 6.
All bryophytes are hydrophytes.
Answer:
False.
Correct statement:
All bryophytes are amphibians.

Question 7.
Dicotyledons have well developed characters than the monocotyledons.
Answer:
False.
Correct statement:
Monocotyledons have well developed characters than the dicotyledons.

Question 8.
Mosses are the well developed plant in bryophytes.
Answer:
True.

Question 9.
The dominant phase of the bryophytes is sporophytes.
Answer:
False.
Correct statement:
The dominant phase of the bryophytes is gametophyte.

Question 10.
The dominant phase of the pteridophytes is diploid(2n).
Answer:
True.

Question 11.
Seeds of angiosperm are produced inside the ovary.
Answer:
True.

Question 12.
In gymnosperms ovules are developed from the flowers.
Answer:
False.
Correct statement:
In gymnosperms, ovules are developed from the seeds.

IV. Match the following

Question 1.
Which of the following pairs are in correct?

(a) Laminaria Iodins
(b) Nostoc N2 fixation
(c) Polysiphonia Green algae
(d) Rhodophyceae Fucoxanthin

(a) a, b, c
(b) c, d
(c) a, c, d
(d) a ,b ,c, d

Answer:
(b) c, d

Question 2.
Find out the correct pairs:

(a) Phyllanthus amarus Euphorbiaceae
(b) Solanum trilobatum Solanaceae
(c) Acalypha indica . Malvaceae
(d) Aegle marmelos Rutaceae

(a) a, b,
(b) c, d
(c) a,b, c,
(d) a,b, d
Answer:
(b) a,b, d

Question 3.
Which of the following characters are not suitable to angiosperm?
(a) Reticulate / parallel venation, closed seeded plants, sieve tubes are present in phloem.
(b) Seeds are open, ovary is not present, gametes are produced in cones.
(c) Tracheids are the conducting cells, companion cells not are present in phloem.
(d) Trimerous or tetramerous, closed seed, seed with seed coat, bears fruit.

(a) a, b
(b) b, c
(c) e, d
(d) a, d
Answer:
(b) b, c

Question 4.
Which of the following sequences are correct
(a) In Bryophytes – Gametophytes – Sex organ – Gamete fusion – Zygote – Spore mother cell – spore – Thallus.
(b) In Angiosperm – pollination – fertilization – zygote – new plant.
(c) In Gymnosperm – male cone, and female cone – microspore and megaspore – Zygote – new sporophytes plant.
(d) In pteridophytes – pollination by wind, fertilization in the presence of water – zygote prothallus, new plant.
(1) a, b, c
(2) a, b
(3) c, d
(4) b, d
Answer:
(2) a, b

Question 5.
Match column I with coloumn II

Column I Column II
A Penicillium chrysogenum 1. Blast disease of paddy.
B Gingko biloba 2. Ornamental plants
C Araucaria bidwilli 3. Athlete foot.
D Tineapedis 4. Penicillin
E Pyricularia oryzae 5. Living fossil

(a) A – 4, B – 5, C – 2, D – 3, E – 1
(b) A – 4, B – 5, G – 1, D – 2, E – 1
(c) A – 3, B – 2, C – 4, D – 5, E – 1
(d) A – 4, B – 2, C – 1, D – 5, E – 3
Answer:
(a) A – 4, B – 5, C – 2, D – 3, E – 1

V. Answer the following questions shortly

Question 1.
Define Thallus.
Answer:
Thallus refers to a plant body which is not differentiated into roots, stem and leaves. Example: Algae.

Question 2.
What is mean by Binomial Nomenclature? Give example.
Answer:
The naming of an organisms with two words are known as Binomial Nomenclature. For example, the binomial name of mango is Mangifera indica. Here the first word Mangifera refers to the genus name and the second word indica to the species name.

Question 3.
Write any two points of dicotyledons.
Answer:

  1. Seed has two cotyledons.
  2. Plants have tap root system, leaves with reticulate venation.
  3. Flowers are tetramerous or pentamerous. Calyx and corolla are well differentiated.
  4. Pollination occurs mostly by insects.

Question 4.
Seeds of gymnosperm plants are naked. Why?
Answer:
In gymnosperms, ovules are borne on megasporophylls and no flowers are produced. Therefore the seeds are described as naked. They are open seed bearing plants.

Question 5.
Write any two economic importance of fungi.
Answer:

  1. Mushrooms contain rich protein, minerals and are edible. Example: Agaricus.
  2. The antibiotic penicillin is got from the fungus penicillium notatum other antibiotics like gentamycin, erythromycin are also got from fungi.

VI. Answers the following questions in brief

Question 1.
Write short notes about natural system of classification.
Answer:

  1. In this system, plants are classified on the basis of several characters. Bentham and Hooker’s classification is an example of Natural System of Classification.
  2. This system of classification is based on morphological.
  3. This classification is widely used in many Herbaria and botanical gardens all over the world.
  4. Bentham and Hooker published their Natural system of Classification in their book named Genera Plantarum in 3 volumes.

Question 2.
Write any three economic importance of algae.
Answer:
1. Agriculture : Some of the blue green algae are essential for the fixing of atmospheric nitrogen into the soil, which increases the fertility of the soil, example Nostoc, Anabaena.

2. Agar Agar : Agar Agar is extracted from some red algae, namely Gelidium, Gracillaria, etc., which is used to prepare growth medium in laboratories.

3. Iodine : Iodine is obtained from brown algae like Laminaria (kelp).

Question 3.
Write the differences between algae and fungi.
Answer:
Algae:

  • Algae are autotrophs.
  • It has pigments.
  • Reserve food material is starch.
  • Some algae are prokaryotic in nature, example: Cyanobacteria (Nostac, Anabenae)

Fungi:

  • Fungi are heterotrophs.
  • It has no pigments
  • Reserve food materials are glycogen and oil.
  • All are eukaryotic nature, example: Agaricus

Question 4.
How many classes are there in Bryophytes? What are they?
Answer:
Bryophytes are classified into 3 classes.

  • Class I: Hepaticae (Liverworts) Example: Riccia.
  • Class II: Anthocerotae (Homworts) Example : Anthoceros
  • Class III : Musci (Mosses) Example: Funaria

Question 5.
Write any four characters of pteridophytes.
Answer:

  1. The main plant body is sporophytes, which is the dominant phase, differentiated into true root, stem and leaves.
  2. Sporophytes reproduce by means of spores. Spores are produced in sporangium.
  3. The sporangia bearing leaves are called sporophyll.
  4. Most of the plants produce only one type of spore, it may be either microspore or megaspore (homosporous).

VII. Answers the following questions in detail

Question 1.
Draw the outline of Bentham and Hookers system classification.
Answer:
Outline of Bentham and Hooker’s system of classification:
Seeded plants (Division):

(i) Dicotyledonae (Class I)

1. Polypetalae (Sub class I)

  • Thalamiflorae
  • Disciflorae
  • Caliciflorae

2. Synpetalae (Sub class II)

  • Inferae
  • Heteromerae
  • Bicarpellatae

3. Monochlamydeae (Sub class III)

  • Series 8 Family 36)

(ii) Gymnospermae (Class II) (3 families)

(iii) Monocotyledonae (Class III) (Series 8 Family 36)

Question 2.
Write any five differences between monocot and dicot plants.
Answer:
Monocots:

  • Seeds have a single cotyledon.
  • Leaves show parallel venation
  • They have fibrous root system.
  • Flowers are trimerous. Example : Paddy

Dicots:

  • Seeds have two cotyledons.
  • Leaves show reticulate venation.
  • They have tap root system.
  • Flowers are tetra or pentamerous. Example : Mango

Question 3.
Write differences between Gymnosperm and Angiosperm.
Answer:

Gymnosperm:

  • They reproduce by production of cones.
  • Pollination is by wind.
  • They are naked seed bearing plants.
  • The xylem lacks vessels and phloem lacks sieve tubes.
  • They have two phases in its life cycle. (Sporophyte & Gametophyte).

Angiosperm:

  • They produce flowers.
  • Pollination takes place by wind, water, insects etc.
  • They are closed seed bearing plants.
  • Xylem and phloem and well developed.
  • The sporophyte is the dominant phase. Gametophytic phase is much reduced in angiosperms.

Question 4.
Write the economic importance of Gymnosperms.
Answer:

  1. Woods of many conifers are used in the paper industries, example Pinus, Agathis.
  2. Conifers are the sources of soft wood for construction, packing and plywood industry example Cedrus, Agathis.
  3. Turpentine is an essential oil used for paint preparation extracted from the resin of Pinus. It is also used medicinally for relief from pain and bronchitis etc.
  4. Seeds of Pinus gerardiana are edible.
  5. Ephedrine is an alkaloid extracted from Ephedra. It cures asthma and respiratory problems.
  6. Araucaria bidwillii is an ornamental plant.

Question 5.
Write the names of medicinal plants and explain their uses.
Answer:
Medicinal plants and their uses:
1. Acalypha indica (Kuppaimeni):

  • The paste obtained from the leaves of this plant is used to cure the bums on the skin.
  • The juice of this plant leaves is mixed with lemon juice to cure ringworm.

2. Aegle marmelos (Vilvam):

  • The unripe fruit of this tree is used to treat indigestion.
  • It is used to cure chronic, diarrhoea and dysentery.

3. Solanum trilobatum:

  • The leaves and fruits of this plant cure cough and cold.
  • It is widely used in the treatment of tuberculosis and bronchial asthma.

4. Phyllanthus amarus (Keezhanelli):

  • The entire plant is used for the treatment of jaundice.
  • It gives additional strength to human liver and used to treat other liver disorders.

5. Aloe vera (Sothu katrazhai):

  • Leaves of this plant is used to cure piles and inflammations on the skin.
  • It cures peptic ulcer.

VIII. Assertion and Reason

Question 1.
Assertion (A) : Penicillin is an antibiotic extracted from Penicillium notation.
Reason (R) : It can kill (or) inhibits the growth of the other micro organism.
(a) Both A and R True, R explains A
(b) A only correct, R doesn’t explain A
(c) A True, R explains A
(d) Both A and R False.
Answer:
(a) Both A and R True, R explains A

Question 2.
Assertion (A): Artificial system of classification is otherwise called sexual system of classification.
Reason (R) : Artificial system of classification is based on the nature of the vegetative characters.
(a) Both A and R correct
(b) Both A and R incorrect
(c) A is correct R is incorrect
(d) A is incorrect and R is correct
Answer:
(c) A is correct R is incorrect

Question 3.
Assertion (A): Bryophytes are called Amphibians of the plant kingdom.
Reason (R) : Bryophytes are land plants but they need water for the completion of their life cycle.
(a) A correct R correct
(b) A incorrect R correct
(c) A and R correct R explain A
(d) A and R incorrect
Answer:
(c) A and R correct R explains A

Samacheer Kalvi 8th Science Solutions Plant Kingdom Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
……………. is a blue green algae.
(a) Chlorella
(b) Oscillatoria
(c) Chara
(d) Laminaria
Answer:
(d) Laminaria

Question 2.
Polvsiohonia is a …………… alga.
(a) Red
(b) Brown
(c) Green
(d) Blue green
Answer:
(a) Red

Question 3.
…………… is used in space travel.
(a) Chlorella
(b) Chlamydomonas
(c) Volvox
(d) Laminaria
Answer:
(a) Chlorella

Question 4.
……………. is an edible algae.
(a) Spirulina
(b) Gelidium
(c) Nostoc
(d) Volvox
Answer:
(a) Spirulina

Question 5.
Tikka disease is seen in ……………..
(a) paddy
(b) Ground nut
(c) Mango
(d) Maize
Answer:
(b) ground nut

Question 6.
Classification of algae was given by …………….
(a) Martin
(b) Alexopoules
(c) Fritsch
(d) Bentham & Hooker
Answer:
(c) Fritsch

Question 7.
…………… is a hallucinogenic fungus.
(a) Colletotrichum
(b) Claviceps
(c) Cercospora
(d) Albugo
Answer:
(b) Claviceps

Question 8.
…………… is not a fungal disease.
(a) Athlet’s foot
(b) Foot and mouth
(c) Dandruff
(d) Ringworm
Answer:
(b) Foot and mouth

Question 9.
Horse tail refers to …………….
(a) Equisetum
(b) Dryopteris
(c) Lycopodium
(d) Nephrolepis
Answer:
(a) Equisetum

Question 10.
Coralloid roots are seen in …………….
(a) Pimis
(b) Cycas
(c) Gingko
(d) Gnetum
Answer:
(b) Cycas

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. Minute algae floating on the surface of water are called …………..
  2. ……………… is an example of symbiosis between algae & fungi.
  3. The book writtin by Linnaeus is titled …………….
  4. Largest Herbarium of India is in ………………
  5. The root like structure in bryophytes is called ………………
  6. …………….. are the simplest group of land plants.
  7. ……………… is a bryophyte which is commonly used in nurseries.
  8. In bryophytes spore is the first cell of the ……………… generation.
  9. Club moss refers to ……………….
  10. An alkaloid got from gymnosperm is ………………
  11. ……………… is a essential oil got from pinus.
  12. The plant ……………… is used for treatment of jaundice.
  13. Special roots present in parasites are called ……………….
  14. The male and female sex organs in bryophytes are called as ……………… and ……………… respectively.
  15. ……………… got from algae is used to prepare growth medium in laboratories.

Answer:

  1. Phytoplanktons
  2. Lichens
  3. Species Plantarum
  4. Kolkata
  5. Rhizoid
  6. Bryophytes
  7. Sphagnum
  8. Gametophytic
  9. Lycopodium
  10. Ephedrine
  11. Turpentine
  12. Phyllanthus amarus
  13. Haustoria
  14. Antheridium, archegonium
  15. Agar Agar

III. True or False – if false give the correct statement

Question 1.
Monocotyledonae leaves have reticulate venation.
False.
Correct statement:
Dicotyledonae leaves have reticulate venation. Monocotyledonae leaves have parallel venation.

Question 2.
Carolus linnaeus published their Natural System of Classification.
False.
Correct statement:
Bentham and Hooker published their Natural System of Classification.

Question 3.
Biomial name was first introduced by Gaspard Bauhin.
True.

Question 4.
Agar Agar is extracted from red algae.
True.

Question 5.
Blue green algae increases the fertility of the soil.
True.

Question 6.
Cell wall of algae is made up of a chemical substance called chitin.
False.
Correct statement:
Cell wall of fungi is made up of a chemical substance called chitin.

Question 7.
Saprophytes grow up on the dead and decay matters.
True.

Question 8.
Erymothercium ashbyii are used to produce vitamin Br
True.

Question 9.
Button mushroom cause allergy to children.
False.
Correct statement:
Aspergillus species cause allergy to children.

Question 10.
Reserve food materials of fungi is starch.
False.
Correct statement:
Reserve food materials of fungi is glycogen and oil.

IV. Match the following

Question 1.

i Solanum trilobatum (a) Fungi
ii Vitamin B2 (b) Rhizopus
iii Saprophyte (c) Laminaria
iv Fodder (d) TB

Answer:

i. d
ii. a
iii. b
iv. c

Question 2.

i Pyricularia (a) Mosses
ii Cercospora (b) Blast disease
iii Protonema (c) Tikka disease
iv Dryopteris (d) Fem

Answer:

i. b
ii. c
iii. a
iv. d

Question 3.

i Araucaria (a) Bryophyte
ii Riccia (b) Fungi
iii Marsilea (c) Gymnosperm
iv Ashbya (d) Pteridophyte

Answer:

i. c
ii. a
iii. d
iv. b

V. Assertion and Reason

Direction:
In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion is given and a corresponding statement of Reason is given just below it. Of the four statements, given below, mark one as the correct answer.
(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion.
(c) If Assertion is true but Reason is false.
(d) If both Assertion and Reason are false.

Question 1.
Assertion : Fungi are considered as thallophytes.
Reason : The plant body is made up of hyphae.
Answer:
(a) Both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion

Question 2.
Assertion : The sporophyte of bryophytes is borne on the gametophyte.
Reason : The sporophyte is the dominant phase.
Answer:
(c) Assertion is true but Reason is false

Question 3.
Assertion : In pteridophytes, gametophyte is the dominant phase.
Reason : They reproduce by spore production.
Answer:
(d) Both Assertion and Reason are false

Question 4.
Assertion : Gymnosperms are more developed than monocots.
They produce closed seeds.
Answer:
(d) Both Assertion and Reason are false

VI. Very short Answers

Question 1.
Name the types of classification.
Answer:
There are four types of classification.

  1. Artificial system of classification
  2. Natural system of classification
  3. Phylogenetic system of classification
  4. Modem system of classification.

Question 2.
What are phytoplankton?
Answer:
Some algae are very minute and float on the surface of the water. These algae are called Phytoplankton.

Question 3.
Mention two forms of algae with examples.
Answer:

  1. Colonial form – Example: Volvolx.
  2. Unicellular form (motile) – Example: Chlamydomonas

Question 4.
Mention two fungal diseases in human beings.
Answer:
Dandruff and ring worm.

Question 5.
Why are byrophytes called as amphibians of the plant kingdom?
Answer:
Water is essential for bryophytes to complete their life cycle. So they are called as amphibians of the plant kingdom.

Question 6.
Write two uses of bryophytes.
Answer:

  1. Bryophytes prevent soil erosion.
  2. Sphagnum can absorb large amount of water. Hence it is used by gardeners in nurseries.

Question 7.
How are gymnosperms classified?
Answer:

  1. Cycadaceae
  2. Coniferae
  3. Gnetaceae

VI. Short Answer

Question 1.
Mention two differences between bryophytes and pteridophytes.
Answer:

S. No Bryophytes Pteridophytes
1. Plant body cannot be differentiated into root, stem and leaf. Plant body can be differentiated into root, stem and leaf.
2. Vascular tissues are absent. Vascular tissues are present.

Question 2.
Mention any four fungal diseases in plants
Answer:

  1. Wilt disease of cotton
  2. Tikka disease of ground nut
  3. White rust of radish
  4. Red rot of sugarcane.

Question 3.
Mention two salient features of algae.
Answer:

  1. Algae are chlorophyll bearing simple, primitive plants and are autotrophs.
  2. Algae belongs to thallophyta, and the plant body of algae are called thallus. i.e. the plant body is not differentiated into root, stem and leaf.

Question 4.
What is artificial system of classification.
Answer:
This is the earliest system of classification in plants. Plants are classified on the basis of one or few morphological characters. The most famous artificial system of classification is Linnaeus classification which was proposed by Carolus Linnaeus.

Question 5.
What is taxonomy?
Answer:
Taxonomy is the branch of biology that deals with the study of identification, classification, description and nomenclature of living organisms.

VIII. Long Answer

Question 1.
Write the classification of algae with type of reserve food, pigments and examples for each type.
Answer:

SI. No Class Types of Pigments Reserve food material Example
1. Blue green algae (Cyanophyceae) Phycocyanin Cyanophycean Starch Oscillatoria
2. Green algae (Chlorophyceae) Chlorophyll Starch Chylamydomonas
3. Brown algae (Phaeophyceae) Fucoxanthin Laminarian starch and Manitol Laminaria
4. Red algae (Rhodophyceae) Phycoerythirin Floridian Starch Polysiphonia

Question 2.
Answer:
1. Antibiotic :
Penicillin (Penicillium notatum), Neomycin, Gentamycin, Erythromycin are some antibiotics obtained from fungi, which cure variable diseases.
Samacheer Kalvi 8th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 7 Plant Kingdom 1

2. Food:
Mushroom contains rich protein and minerals. The most common edible mushroom is Agaricus. (Button mushroom).
Samacheer Kalvi 8th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 7 Plant Kingdom 2

3. Vitamins :
Fungus like Ashbya gospii and Erymothecium ashbyii are used to produce vitamin B? (riboflavin).
Samacheer Kalvi 8th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 7 Plant Kingdom 3

4. Alcohol:
Fungus like yeast contain enzymes invertase and zymase, which ferment the sugar molasses into alcohol.

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