Samacheer Kalvi 10th English Note Making and Summarising

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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 10th English Note Making and Summarising

Notes are short written record of facts to aid the memory. Notes are usually taken to record a speech or dictation while listening to it or after reading a book, magazine or article. They are referred back whenever needed and may be reproduced in the desired way.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th English Note Making and Summarising

The Necessity Of Note – Making
Knowledge is vast and unlimited, but our memory is limited. We cannot remember all the information all the time. Hence note – making is necessary. With the help of notes we can recall the entire information read/heard months ago. It is quite useful to students preparing for many subjects. At the time of examinations, it is not possible to go through voluminous books. At such critical times, notes are quite handy. Hence note-making fulfils three useful functions:

  1. It keeps a lot of information at our disposal for ready reference.
  2. It helps us reconstruct what was said or written and thus accelerates the process of remembering/recall.
  3. It comes in handy in delivering a speech, participation in a debate/discussion, writing an essay and revising lessons before an examination.

How Note – Making Helps Us

While making notes we do not simply read the passage/listen to speech but consider various points made by the writer/speaker and draw our own inferences about what is being presented. Thus note-making helps us in understanding the passage in a better way and organising our thoughts systematically.

Characteristics Of Good Notes

  1. Short and Compact: Good notes must be short and compact.
  2. Complete Information: They must contain all the important information.
  3. Logical: They must be presented in a logical way.
  4. Understandable: They should be understandable when consulted at a later stage.

Mechanics Of Note – Making

While making notes we follow certain standard practices. These may be listed as follows:
(a) Heading and Subheadings
(b) Abbreviation and Symbols
(c) Note – form
(d) Numbering and Indentation

Heading And Sub – Headings

The heading reflects the main theme whereas the subheadings point out how it has been developed. The selection of proper heading and subheading reveals the grasp of the passage by the students. In the absence of proper assimilation of main ideas and subsidiary points, it is impossible to make notes.

Solved Questions
Read the following passages carefully and make notes and summarize.

PASSAGE 1
The epidemic of heart attacks has been attaining alarming proportion in recent times causing grave concern specially to the medical fraternity. To contain and control the increasing death and disability from heart attacks and to focus on public awareness and their involvement at global level, the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the World Heart Federation observed September 24th as the World Heart Day. What causes heart attacks? Dr H.S. Wasir, Chief Cardiologist and Medical Director, Batra Hospital and Medical Research Centre lists four main habits which adversely affect the heart health. These are lack of physical exercise, wrong eating habits, cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and stressful lifestyle.

The importance of physical exercise in minimising the incidence of heart attacks cannot be underestimated. “Physical exercise,” says Dr. Wasir, “plays a major role in achieving a long and healthy life in general and prevention of heart attacks in particular.” There are several studies showing that physically active people have higher longevity than those sedentary or physically inactive.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th English Note Making and Summarising

Notes:
Healthy Heart

1. World Heart Day: 24 September.
(a) To control death & disability
(b) To increase awareness

2. Causes of Heart Attacks
(a) Lack of physical exercise
(b) Wrong eating habits
(c) Smoking & alcohol
(d) Stressful lifestyle

3. Role of Physical Exercise.
(a) Prevents heart attacks – longer life
(b) Isotonic – beneficial; isometric – harmful
(c) Walking: best exercise
(i) 30 to 60 meters brisk walk
(ii) no equipment, money, material or membership of club
(iii) early morning: ideal for walking.

4. Consult cardiologist before beginning an exercise program.

Summary
Rough draft: Healthy Heart

The epithet of heart attacks has been attaining alarming proportions in recent times causing grave to the medical fraternity. To have control on increasing death and disability due’ total art attacks, the World Health Organisation (W.H.O) and World Heart Federation nSssj^served September 24th as World Heart Day to focus on public awareness. “Physi&ak exercise,” says Dr. Wasir, “plays a major role in achieving a long and healthy life ing&netul and prevention of heart attacks ’’ in particular.” According to health experts, their age main habits that cause heart attack, these are lack of physical exercise, wrong&atijjg habits, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and stressful lifestyle. The effect§’«Qieart attack can be reduced to greater extent with the help of regular exercise like walking.

Fair Draft: Healthy Heart
In recent times, heart attack is an epidemic disease that causes grave concern to the medical fraternity. To have control on increasing death and disability due to heart attacks, the World Health Organisation (W.H.O) and World Heart Federation has observed September 24th as the World Heart Day to focus on public awareness. According to health experts, there are four main habits that cause heart attack, these are lack of physical exercise, wrong eating habits, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and stressful lifestyle. The effects of heart attack can be reduced to greater extent with the help of regular exercise like walking.

No. of words in the Fair Draft: 100

PASSAGE 2
Scientists in the USA and Japan are developing a set of smart materials that clean themselves off dirt and stains besides eliminating foul odors and dangerous bacteria. Exploiting powerful catalytic properties, researchers succeeded in creating tiles, glass, paint, paper and cloth that can keep themselves sparkling clean. The first item to reach the market, a self – cleaning wall and counter tile, can not only kill bacteria but also eliminate odors and staining associated with smoke from cooking oils and cigarettes, reports the journal Technology Review. The key to the self – cleaning world of the future is the interaction between titanium dioxide and ultraviolet rays from the sun or fluorescent lights. The special properties of titanium dioxide – a substance used to make paint and toothpaste white – were first discovered by Tokyo University chemist Akira Fujishima and Associates in 1969. Their research showed that when exposed to solar energy, titanium dioxide has the ability to break down water into hydrogen and oxygen.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th English Note Making and Summarising

Notes
Self Cleaning Materials

1. Self-cleaning materials
(a) Clean dirt, stains
(b) Eliminate foul odour & dangerous bacteria

2. Self-clearing tiles – people of work.
(a) Ultraviolet rays – * Ti02

3. Special properties of TiOz
(a) Ti02 makes paint/toothpaste white
(b) Ability to break down H20 into H2 and 02
(c) Absorbs energy from ultraviolet band + reacts with H20 vapours → produced 02 → break organic matter → C02 + trace elements

Summary
Rough’ttraft: Self Cleaning Materials
Scientists in thetfSAiand Japan are developing a set of smart materials that clean themselves off dirt and taus but also eliminate odors and dangerous bacteria. The first item to reach the market/a’selfAfieaning wall and counter tile, can not only kill bacteria but also eliminate odours arm causing associated with smoke from cooking oils and cigarettes, reports the journal Technology Review. Some tiles, glass, paint, paper and cloth have been introduced those can be’ kept dean manually. Titanium dioxide and Ultraviolet rays from the sun are the keys to the’self^cleaning world.

Fair Draft: Self Cleaning Materials
Scientists of Japan and USA have developed many smart materials that not only clean themselves off dirt and stains but also eliminate odours and dangerous bacteria. Some tiles, glass, paint, paper and cloth have been introduced those can be kept clean manually. Titanium dioxide and Ultraviolet rays from the sun are the keys to the self – cleaning world.

No. of words in the Fair Draft: 57

PASSAGE 3
According to the National Council for Applied Economic Research’s latest report, India: Human Development Report which is a profile of the Indian states in the 1990s, there are many problems in women’s education. Girls are taken out of school as soon as some calamity hits the family’s fortunes. They are made to look after their younger siblings and they are not looked upon as ‘investment’. In order to marry them off early and without problems, girls are not allowed to traverse long distances to go to school. They are not allowed to study under male teachers. Affluent families invest in girls’ education only if they are assured of getting better bridegrooms.

When women are educated, they can at least look after their own and the family’s health, better. Without adequate education, there is a low level of awareness about ailments and sheer ignorance can cause them to ascribe ailments to non – medical, often supernatural causes. Uneducated women are often too shy to reveal their diseases and many do not go to doctors out of fear that it may cause undue expenses to their budgetary balances. Pregnant women in many villages have been found not to be given any special diet. In fact they often reduce their food intake because of the prevailing belief that they cannot digest heavy food. There is gender disparity in most states in the treatment of young children and the elderly.

In any case, a majority of the rural areas do not have provision for primary health care services. The prevalence of diseases is rather high in the southern states, West Bengal and Punjab perhaps because of better reporting of sickness and the availability of treatment. About 41 million individuals receive medication for major illnesses at a point of time in India and the highest prevalence is of hypertension followed by tuberculosis. The critical issues of education and health are closely connected with expansion of job opportunities and while reducing unemployment has been a standard slogan during the elections by all parties, the emphasis on health and education has been subdued.

Notes
Neglect of Women’s Education & Health
1. Female dropouts in schools
(a) Family hit by calamity – girl looks after siblings
(b) Girl’s education. – not regarded investment
(i) rich – investment, if better bridegroom
(c) Problem-free marriage
(i) early age
(ii) no long distance to school
(iii) no male teachers

Samacheer Kalvi 10th English Note Making and Summarising

2. Results of inadequate female education.
(a) Health probs.
(i) ignorance
(ii) superstitions
(iii) shyness about disease
(iv)fear of undue expenses
(v)lack of proper diet to pregnant women

3. Lack of rural/health care services
(a) High prevalence of diseases 41 million get medication.
(b) Southern states, West Bengal & Punjab
(i) better reporting of sickness
(ii) availability of treatment.
(c) Most common diseases
(i) hyper tension
(ii) T.B.

Summary
Rough draft: Neglect of Women’s Education & Health
Women’s arts education is still lagging behind under various factors. If any calamity hits, girls are taken^out of school to look after their younger siblings. Girls education is not regarded as asihvqstment. When women are educated, they can at least look after their own and the ralmlVs health, better. Only the rich class people educate their girls for better match. MokNa^the parents do not like to send their girl child in distant school or taught by male teacher. The working women give up their job with an increase in their family income. Secbn4Jy inadequate education in female create health problems due to ignorance, superstitiPn§and fear of undue expense. There is lack of rural health care services so rural women become victims of diseases like T.B., hypertension etc. There is gender disparity ‘furriest states in the treatment of young children and the elderly.

Fair Draft: Neglect of Women’s Education & Health
Women’s education is still lagging behind under various factors. If any calamity hits, a girls are taken out of school to look after their younger siblings. Girls education is not regarded as investment. Only the rich class people educate their girls for better match. Most of the parents do not like to send their girl child in distant school or taught by male teachers. The working women give up their job with an increase in their family income. Secondly inadequate education in female create health problems due to ignorance, superstitions and fear of undue expense. There is lack of rural health care services so the rural women become victims of diseases like T.B., hypertension etc.

No. of words in the Fair Draft: 115

PASSAGE 4
The distribution of forests among different districts of the state is very uneven. The concentration of forests is mostly in the hills of western districts and in the Javadi group of hills in Vellore district. Dense forests are also seen in Salem district. More than half of the area in the Nilgiris is under forest. Other districts hold 1% to 5% of area under forests. Thanjavur being the alluvial plain is suitable for agriculture which has less than 1% of forest cover.

The forests of Tamil Nadu have different types of trees. Most of the trees in the state shed their leaves in the dry season. Tamil Nadu has large areas of sandal wood plantations, about 5,88,000 hectares. Hard wood trees are available in the forests of Coimbatore, Nilgiris and Kanyakumari. Trees that are used as fuel are found in Madurai, Coimbatore and Thanjavur districts. Kanyakumari district has rubber plantations.

Notes
Forests in Tamil Nadu
Uneven distribution – concentration in western districts, Nilgiris, Javadi hills, Vellore and Salem – other districts have 1 – 5% forests. Thanjavur only 1% of land under forests.

Different kinds of trees.
Deciduous trees, Hardwood trees, Sandalwood trees and Ordinary trees for firewood available – 5,88,000 hectares under sandalwood.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th English Note Making and Summarising

Spread
Hardwood trees – Kanyakumari, Coimbatore and Nilgiris
Firewood – Madurai, Thanjavur and Coimbatore
Rubber – Kanyakumari

Summary
Rough’drai’t: Forests in Tamil Nadu
The distributibiKQf forests among different districts of the state is very uneven. Forest cover is denseSuwestem districts, Javadi hills, Vellore, Nilgiris and Salem. Thanjavur has less than l%^of forest cover. Tamil Nadu forests have hardwood, firewood and sandalwood trees/San^lalwood trees are found in 5,88,000 hectares. Hardwood and firewood are found inTSAQyakumari, Coimbatore and Thanjavur. Nilgiris has good cover of hardwood, Kanyaktmri has rubber plantations. Trees that are used as fuel are found in Madurai, Coimbatore and Thanjavur districts. Kanyakumari district has rubber plantations.

Fair Draft: Forests in Tamil Nadu
Forest cover is dense in western districts, Javadi hills, Vellore, Nilgiris and Salem. Thanjavur has less than 1% of forest cover. Tamil Nadu forests have hardwood, firewood and sandalwood trees. Sandalwood trees are found in 5,88,000 hectares. Hardwood and firewood are found in Kanyakumari, Coimbatore and Thanjavur. Nilgiris has good cover of hardwood, Kanyakumari has rubber plantations.

No. of words in the Fair Draft: 57

PASSAGE 5
Oils are of three main kinds – vegetable, animal and mineral oil. Vegetable oil is obtained by crushing oilseeds. Mineral oil is pumped out from deep under the earth. Animal oil is got from the fat of animals. To extract vegetable oil, the dried oilseeds are put in the crushing machine and oil is squeezed out. This is found deep below the ground. Holes are drilled and oil is pumped out or forced out. The crude oil is a source of many useful things. We get kerosene, petrol and diesel out of crude oil. We use most of the vegetable oils for cooking. Mineral oils are mainly used as fuel. Animal oils are used as medicine. For example, shark liver oil is given to strengthen weak children. Neem oil, lime oil and sandalwood oil also have medicinal value.

Notes:
Three kinds of oil

  • Vegetable oil – crushing dried seeds – using machines
  • Mineral oil – holes drilled – deep under the ground – oil pumped out crude oil – refined – petrol/diesel/kerosene
  • Animal oil – fat of animals – whales, sharks – blubber melted

Uses of oil

  • Vegetable oil – edible – used for cooking – for making soaps residue – oil cake – used as cattle feed.
  • Mineral oil – used as fuels
  • Animal oil – used as medicine – skin care soaps.

Summary
Rough draft: Neglect of Women’s Education & Health

Oils are of mrbe’Oiiain kinds – vegetable, animal and mineral oil. Vegetable oil is obtained by crushing’ my seeds. Vegetable oil is extracted from dried seeds by crushing. Mineral oils are purer pinout from underground. Animal oils are extracted from the fat or blurb of whale andsharl^s. We get kerosene, petrol and diesel from crude oil. Vegetable oils are used for cooking mineral oils are used as fuels. Neem oil, lime oil and sandalwood oil also have medic math value.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th English Note Making and Summarising

Fair Draft: Neglect of Women’s Education & Health
Vegetable oil is extracted from dried seeds by crushing. Mineral oils are pumped out from underground. Animal oils are extracted from the fat or blurb of whale and sharks. We get kerosene, petrol and diesel from crude oil. Vegetable oils are used for cooking. Mineral oils are used as fuels.

No. of words in the Fair Draft: 50

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